Education Week - August 30, 2017 - 18

COMMENTARY

We Can Fix
Credit Recovery

T

Getty

By Monique Darrisaw-Akil

"

Many of the problems with credit recovery are
adult problems. As adults, we can fix them."

here has been a recent
focus on the Los Angeles
Unified School District's
high school graduation rates, which have
reached an all-time high
that many attribute to
the district's reliance on
credit recovery. Credit recovery has gotten a bad rap for reducing the quality
and rigor of education. Some believe that
when schools use credit recovery and online makeup courses that students are actually being robbed of their right to learn.
Despite the hyperbole, the dangers of a
quick-fix approach to graduation are real.
In some cases, the use of credit recovery
does lead to lowered academic standards.
Even when students pass the course, they
may not have received the type of instruction that will prepare them for success
in college or careers. Additionally, some

educators worry about the message we
send to students when they fail a class
for reasons such as chronic absence, but
are then given the chance to "recover" the
class in a two-week crash course. This
challenges the values of the importance
of hard work and effort that American
schools try to instill.
In light of all these issues with credit
recovery, why do schools and districts still
use this system? Because the pressure to
graduate students is tremendous; in fact
for school leaders, their jobs depend on it.
In addition to qualitative indicators, high
school graduation rates are a major factor
in a principal's overall evaluation.
In New York state, where I serve as
an assistant superintendent, graduation
rates are one of the criteria used to determine school standing. The consequences
for not being in good standing can range
from the imposition of additional compliance mandates to inspections by state officials to state takeovers.

Public School Officials Are Artificially Inflating
Graduation Rates. I've Seen It Myself

I

By Bernard Gassaway
n the age of accountability ushered in
by the No Child Left Behind law in 2002
and continued under 2015's Every Student Succeeds Act, many school officials
are using fraudulent methods to inflate
graduation rates.
As a direct result of a public thirst for
schools to show progress, boards of education pressure superintendents, superintendents
squeeze principals, principals ride teachers, and
teachers stress students. The ultimate measure
of progress for schools nationwide is high school
graduation rates.
Public school officials use a variety of schemes to
give the appearance of progress.
Credit recovery is one strategy that school officials use to allow students to quickly make up for
classes they have failed, without receiving formal
instruction. Credit recovery is a national practice,
though it may be called something else. In fact,
"credit recovery" is a broad term that encompasses
multiple strategies, some more effective than others. Blended learning, virtual learning, after-school
programs, summer school, weekend school, and
night school are all credit-recovery strategies.
I experienced the worst of this practice when
I became principal of New York City's Boys and
Girls High School in 2009. One student was told
by his teacher to complete about five handouts to

make up for a summer school art course. Instead
of attending class, that student was allowed to participate in a basketball tournament in Las Vegas.
(I denied the student credit and eliminated this
abusive practice.)
Also, students with disabilities often have a
lower threshold for meeting graduation requirements. Some school officials resort to reclassifying
struggling students to increase their graduation
rates. By reclassifying general education students,
they become eligible for a lower graduation threshold. In the case of New York state, students with
individualized education plans are currently required to pass a single English- and a single mathexit exam to meet graduation requirements, rather
than the five such exams that are required for general education students.
In my experience, school officials entice parents
to become complicit, as officials encourage them to
request for their children a plan under Section 504
of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973, which includes a
more expansive definition of disability than is protected under the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act. That 504 plan allows certain general
education students to receive some of the same
accommodations that students with IEPs receive:
extended time; having the exam read to them; and,
in select cases, even a lower score threshold to pass
exit exams.
Lastly, when education officials cannot use any
of the aforementioned tactics to get struggling stu-

18 | EDUCATION WEEK | August 30, 2017 | www.edweek.org/go/commentary

"

Public school
officials use a
variety of
schemes to give
the appearance
of progress."

dents through high school, they transfer or push
out students who are off-track for graduation-
dropping the dead weight that is dragging down
graduation statistics. Pushing students out is the
most efficient way to increase a school's graduation
rate. Principals transfer overage and undercredited students to alternative schools.
That, too, is an abusive practice I've observed
firsthand. Here's how it works: Principals and
guidance counselors tell students they must leave
the school if they want to graduate. Students are
persuaded to transfer to alternative schools under
the guise that it is easier for them to earn credits
and graduate. In some cases, those same school
personnel even inform students that they are not
allowed to return, thus rendering these schools no
longer accountable for the students' performance
indicators.
In New York, state education officials reported
an increase in the 2015 high school graduation
rate to 78 percent, a slight rise from the previous
year's. In 2016, that number increased to 79.4 percent, coinciding with the introduction of the New
York state regents' new graduation requirements.
The state's standardized high school exam offers
new graduation standards for students with disabilities by reducing the number of exit examinations from five to two. Once standards have been
lowered and the rigor associated with the new
requirements lessened, these seemingly better
graduation numbers are no longer valid measures


http://www.edweek.org/go/commentary

Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of Education Week - August 30, 2017

Education Week - August 30, 2017
Delayed Start to School Tough Call for Parents
More Americans Give Top Grades To Schools in Latest PDK Poll
An Unlikely ESSA Provision: Warning on Copyright Piracy
Grad. Rate Rule Creates Quandary for States
State Chiefs’ Pay Squeezed Between Duties, Politics
Report Roundup
News in Brief
For Most Students, Closing Failing Schools Doesn’t Help
Obama-Era School Snack Rules Slow to Change Students’ Habits
The District Where Principals Run Their Schools—and Teach
Teacher Fellows Tread Fine Line At Ed. Dept
Federal Judge Finds ‘Racial Animus’ In Ariz. Ethnic-Studies Ban
How States Will Slice ESSA Block-Grant Pie
Hiring Deals Include More Than Base Pay
Monique Darrisaw-Akil: We Can Fix Credit Recovery
Bernard Gassaway: Public School Officials Are Artificially Inflating Graduation Rates. I’ve Seen It Myself
John Kline: ESSA Co-Author: Enforce the Law
Letters
TopSchoolJobs Recruitment Marketplace
Miriam Kurtzig Freedman: Is the SAT Still Valid?
Education Week - August 30, 2017 - State Chiefs’ Pay Squeezed Between Duties, Politics
Education Week - August 30, 2017 - 2
Education Week - August 30, 2017 - 3
Education Week - August 30, 2017 - News in Brief
Education Week - August 30, 2017 - 5
Education Week - August 30, 2017 - Obama-Era School Snack Rules Slow to Change Students’ Habits
Education Week - August 30, 2017 - The District Where Principals Run Their Schools—and Teach
Education Week - August 30, 2017 - Teacher Fellows Tread Fine Line At Ed. Dept
Education Week - August 30, 2017 - 9
Education Week - August 30, 2017 - 10
Education Week - August 30, 2017 - 11
Education Week - August 30, 2017 - 12
Education Week - August 30, 2017 - 13
Education Week - August 30, 2017 - How States Will Slice ESSA Block-Grant Pie
Education Week - August 30, 2017 - 15
Education Week - August 30, 2017 - 16
Education Week - August 30, 2017 - Hiring Deals Include More Than Base Pay
Education Week - August 30, 2017 - Bernard Gassaway: Public School Officials Are Artificially Inflating Graduation Rates. I’ve Seen It Myself
Education Week - August 30, 2017 - John Kline: ESSA Co-Author: Enforce the Law
Education Week - August 30, 2017 - Letters
Education Week - August 30, 2017 - 21
Education Week - August 30, 2017 - TopSchoolJobs Recruitment Marketplace
Education Week - August 30, 2017 - 23
Education Week - August 30, 2017 - Miriam Kurtzig Freedman: Is the SAT Still Valid?
Education Week - August 30, 2017 - CW1
Education Week - August 30, 2017 - CW2
Education Week - August 30, 2017 - CW3
Education Week - August 30, 2017 - CW4
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