Education Week - July 20, 2016 - 6

Common Core Poses Logistical Challenges In Writing Instruction By Madeline Will Writing instruction may have fallen by the wayside during the No Child Left Behind Act era, as teachers zeroed in on teaching math and reading, as many literacy experts have lamented. But now, with most states using the Common Core State Standards, students are expected to write a lot more-and to write in different forms. The standards include detailed writing expectations that go well beyond states' previous requirements. Specifically, they call for proficiency in argumentative, explanatory, and narrative writing and the ability to draw connections from and between texts. A noticeable uptick of writing in schools has taken place as most states have implemented the standards, said Tanya Baker, the director of national programs at the National Writing Project, a professional-development network that generally supports the changes ushered in by the common core. Baker cited anecdotal evidence since there isn't a way to track the exact amount of writing occurring in classrooms. But for the most part, educators say students aren't writing as much as the standards require. "Kids are writing single paragraphs. It's so far from where we want for young people to be college- or career-ready," Baker said. "The baseline has moved, but it's still pretty far from what we want to see." Missing Assignments A study published last fall by the nonprofit Education Trust, which advocates for policies that help low income students, analyzed 1,500 student assignments from a twoweek period in the 2014-15 school year at six urban middle schools and found that fewer than 1 in 10 assignments required multiple paragraphs of writing. Just 4 in 10 assignments were aligned with the grade-appropriate standard, and only 16 percent required students to cite evidence from the text, which is a key component of the common core. Joan Dabrowski, an education consultant who was the lead literacy adviser for the Education Trust's analysis, said students across the country still aren't doing enough writing, and what they are doing rarely entails the kind of multiparagraph, evidence-based writing that is promoted in college- and careerready standards. That may be a problem for schools because new commoncore-aligned assessments place a greater weight on student writing than did past state exams. The new English assessments are more sensitive to differences in writing instruction, especially in the middle grades, found a study by the Center for Education Policy Research at Harvard University that was released earlier this year. Since the past assessments focused more on reading comprehension, the new tests should theoretically lead teachers to put more emphasis on writing in their classrooms, the study said. But more research needs to be done to identify effective interventions to help teachers with writing instruction, the authors said. In the meantime, giving students more opportunities to do in-depth writing and providing a framework for their development might be places to start. "If students are writing often and understanding where they are as a writer, ... the test will take care of itself," said Carol Jago, the associate director of the California Reading and Literature Project at the University of California, Los Angeles, and a past president of the National Council of Teachers of English. "Fluency does matter," Dabrowski echoed. "It matters tremendously." 'Hungry for Guidance' So why aren't students writing more? Experts cite several reasons. "Teachers want to teach more writing," Jago said. "They know it's important. They believe in it." But they don't always have the support or direction available to properly teach the sort of in-depth writing now expected of students, she said. When implementation of the common core first began in 2011, said Baker of the National Writing Project, it became clear that many teachers had had no practice in teaching the kind of writing that the standards call for, particularly in the case of argumentative writing. The National Writing Project has tried to respond to that need with online professional-development courses, resources for teachers, and an online community of practice where teachers can connect and discuss the new expectations of writing instruction. "Teachers are hungry for guidance," said Dabrowski, who talked to teachers about writing instruction during the Education Trust's literary-assignment analysis. They want examples of lessons that meet the standards, she said. In common-core states, several recent surveys have found that nearly all language arts teachers are at least somewhat reliant on materials they've developed or selected themselves. 6 | EDUCATION WEEK | July 20, 2016 | www.edweek.org Alyssa Schukar for Education Week Classroom time, guidance seen as lacking Sargy Letuchy, an English-as-a-second-language teacher at Bolingbrook High School in Illinois, says many teachers feel ill-equipped to integrate the common-core standards for writing into their instruction. While it's relatively easy to find examples of assignments, however, it's harder, especially in the upper grades, to find materials that show how to teach the English/language arts standards, particularly the substandards for each writing style, said high school teacher Sargy Letuchy. "It's like being asked to run a marathon without proper equipment and training," he said. Letuchy, who is an English-as-asecond-language teacher at Bolingbrook High School in Illinois, has " When are kids actually being allowed to practice [writing]? Writers need a solid block of time to get into their writing." JOAN DABROWSKI Literacy Consultant developed a workshop for teachers on writing instruction under the common core that he has presented in his school district and at conferences. Teachers have told him they feel unequipped to meet the level of rigor now expected of them as a result of the new standards, he said, compelling him to write a book, The Visual Edge, that includes visual instructional tools for teaching the grades 6-12 standards. "The real challenge is teaching writing with more quantity and rigor in the same amount of school days," Letuchy said. With all the competing demands on teachers' time, Dabrowski said, there is a limited amount of writing time afforded to students, particu- larly blocks of uninterrupted time, which can be the most effective for practice. Dabrowski said she's heard from many teachers who say they want guidance on how to best use their time, which is often highly structured. District-encouraged curricular scripts or directives often include warm-up and wrap-up activities that "chisel away 10 to 12 minutes at each end" of class, she said. "When are kids actually being allowed to practice [writing]? Writers need a solid block of time to get into their writing," Dabrowski said. "I think the work of writing ... it ebbs and flows," she added. "If [students are] only given short little snippets of time, we have some structures in place that are misaligned with the common core." WRITING REVISED This story was originally published as part of "Next Draft: Changing Practices in Writing Instruction," an online special report on Education Week Teacher. The report explores how writing instruction has changed in recent years, particularly with the adoption of college- and career-ready standards, and how educators are adjusting their practices in light of those changes. Creating Possibilities As UCLA's Jago put it: "Many of the best practices [in writing instruction] come crashing down around what's possible." Large class sizes present another obstacle, Jago said, noting that teachers who have 40 students in each of their five classes can't possibly grade 200 papers every day. "Students need to write much more than any teacher could possibly read," she said. "There are some responsible ways of dealing with that-the irresponsible way is not assigning writing." Instead, Jago said, students could assess their own writing and give the teacher their best work to read, along with a written explanation of why they thought that piece of writing was worthy. Or students could share their work in small groups and have the group select the best piece of writing and explain why. "Teachers need to figure out how to multiply themselves," Jago said. "The only audience for a piece of writing shouldn't be the teacher." Other pieces in the report include: "Teachers Struggle With Changing Place of Personal Narratives in Writing Instruction," "Is the Five-Paragraph Essay History?," "English Teacher's Hip-Hop Curriculum Gets Students Writing," and "Remodeling the Workshop: Lucy Calkins on Writing Instruction Today." Three perspective pieces by current teachers are also featured. View the full report. www.edweek.org/go/nextdraft http://www.edweek.org/go/nextdraft http://www.edweek.org

Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of Education Week - July 20, 2016

Education Week - July 20, 2016
First-Generation College-Goers Try Campus Life
Dose of Empathy Found To Cut Suspension Rates
Vouchers Put Some Parents in Squeeze on Spec. Ed. Rights
Data Loom Large in Quest for New School-Quality Indicator
Detroit District Splits To Shore Up Schools
News in Brief
Report Roundup
Common Core Poses Logistical Challenges In Writing Instruction
Longtime Leader in Education Journalism Passes the Baton
Schools Prepare to Confront Questions on Race, Policing
Blogs of the Week
Landmark Equity Study Turns 50
A Persistent Divide
Digital Device Choice Has Noticeable Impact On Test Performance
Will FAFSA Changes Speed Up Aid Awards?
U.S. Supreme Court’s 2015-16 Term
States, Districts Eyeing Chance to Craft Innovative Tests
K-12 Issues: Where the Candidates Stand
Setting the Education Department’s Direction
Blogs of the Week
ALICE JOHNSON CAIN: ESSA Could Leave Vulnerable Students in Limbo
ERICA FRANKENBERG & LILIANA M. GARCES: What Fisher v. University of Texas Means for K-12 Districts
SAUL DREVITCH: The Wisdom of an 8th Grader
Letters
TopSchoolJobs Recruitment Marketplace
ADAM KIRK EDGERTON: K-12 Schools: We Have Our Own ‘Brexit’ Problem
Education Week - July 20, 2016 - Detroit District Splits To Shore Up Schools
Education Week - July 20, 2016 - 2
Education Week - July 20, 2016 - 3
Education Week - July 20, 2016 - News in Brief
Education Week - July 20, 2016 - Report Roundup
Education Week - July 20, 2016 - Common Core Poses Logistical Challenges In Writing Instruction
Education Week - July 20, 2016 - Longtime Leader in Education Journalism Passes the Baton
Education Week - July 20, 2016 - Schools Prepare to Confront Questions on Race, Policing
Education Week - July 20, 2016 - 9
Education Week - July 20, 2016 - Landmark Equity Study Turns 50
Education Week - July 20, 2016 - 11
Education Week - July 20, 2016 - A Persistent Divide
Education Week - July 20, 2016 - Digital Device Choice Has Noticeable Impact On Test Performance
Education Week - July 20, 2016 - Will FAFSA Changes Speed Up Aid Awards?
Education Week - July 20, 2016 - 15
Education Week - July 20, 2016 - 16
Education Week - July 20, 2016 - 17
Education Week - July 20, 2016 - 18
Education Week - July 20, 2016 - 19
Education Week - July 20, 2016 - 20
Education Week - July 20, 2016 - States, Districts Eyeing Chance to Craft Innovative Tests
Education Week - July 20, 2016 - K-12 Issues: Where the Candidates Stand
Education Week - July 20, 2016 - 23
Education Week - July 20, 2016 - Setting the Education Department’s Direction
Education Week - July 20, 2016 - Blogs of the Week
Education Week - July 20, 2016 - 26
Education Week - July 20, 2016 - 27
Education Week - July 20, 2016 - ERICA FRANKENBERG & LILIANA M. GARCES: What Fisher v. University of Texas Means for K-12 Districts
Education Week - July 20, 2016 - SAUL DREVITCH: The Wisdom of an 8th Grader
Education Week - July 20, 2016 - Letters
Education Week - July 20, 2016 - 31
Education Week - July 20, 2016 - 32
Education Week - July 20, 2016 - TopSchoolJobs Recruitment Marketplace
Education Week - July 20, 2016 - 34
Education Week - July 20, 2016 - 35
Education Week - July 20, 2016 - ADAM KIRK EDGERTON: K-12 Schools: We Have Our Own ‘Brexit’ Problem
Education Week - July 20, 2016 - CT1
Education Week - July 20, 2016 - CT2
Education Week - July 20, 2016 - CT3
Education Week - July 20, 2016 - CT4
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