Education Week - July 20, 2016 - 29

" Strong regulations are necessary to ensure Title I dollars play their essential part in fulfilling our nation's commitment to the next generation." The Wisdom of an 8th Grader A By Saul Drevitch at our country and see a history of evil actions taken to steal a continent, while using slaves to build an economy. They reach the far-tooeasy conclusion that we are an evil nation. There are other Americans who reach the equally simple conclusion that our past is a series of justifiable steps on the path to creating a great nation. Both perspectives are equally flawed. These points of view both take our nation's complicated history and reduce it to oversimplified ideas. My 8th graders understand that there is no wisdom in trying to find simple answers to the complicated issues surrounding an equally complicated nation. Our nation's leaders, and those who desperately desire to be our leaders, would do well to understand this. My 8th graders also understand that the key to our complex democracy is the right to free speech guaranteed in the First Amendment. They understand that what makes free speech complicated is the simple fact that it is s an 8th grade American history teacher, I should be excited about the opportunity to use this fall's election as a way to bring history to life for my students. Instead, I find myself deeply frustrated at having to explain to my students that somehow the nation that they live in has not fully internalized the basic lessons of American democracy they are learning in class. As our election draws ever closer, I see three areas in which our body politic could benefit from mastering the wisdom and civic maturity of my 8th graders. My students understand just how prophetic George Washington was when he warned against the dangers of political parties; they appreciate that American democracy is complicated and does not lend itself to simple answers; and they recognize that our democracy cannot function without strict protection of the freedom of speech. As he was completing his second term, Washington issued a farewell address full of sage advice to the young nation. Some of his strongest words were reserved for a pointed warning of the "baneful effects" of political parties. My 8th graders can explain the connection between the failure to heed Washington's advice and the political rancor that would eventually lead to a civil war. Some of them can also connect Washington's advice to the current lack of civility between our two major political pargranted to all. ties. While it is highly Many in politics and unlikely that we are academia are trying heading toward another civil war, a case to adapt the freedom can be made that the of speech to somehow level of discord beinclude a freedom tween the parties may from offense. If one be the 21st-century American's freedom of equivalent. speech can be limited George Washington because another Amerwas far too wise to beican feels offended by lieve that the country his words, then freedom of speech no longer exists. could exist for a day, let Our nation's language alone 240 years, without has certainly become riddled disagreement. In fact, he was so committed to the power with words and phrases that of vigorous debate that he reguare intended to incite anger and larly asked Thomas Jefferson and Getty violence. Such words should not be Alexander Hamilton to sit in a room together tolerated. However, we cannot allow this small and argue over national policies until they segment of speech to expand and challenge the had both depleted their vast vocabularies. The foundation of democracy. The more I learn, the difference between then and now is that they more I understand that the greatest benefit were both equally focusing on the needs of the of democracy is not that we get to collectively country rather than those of a political party. choose our leaders, it is the fact that every day My most recent class of 8th graders spent we get to decide which ideas carry the greata year learning just how complicated it is to est value. Great Americans have secured their be a citizen of this great country. Our Consti- places in history by trusting their ideas and tution has been a model for every democracy submitting those ideas to the thoughts and that has emerged over the past two centuries. free-speech rights of others. My 8th graders It is also a document that condoned slavery. In understand that this ongoing debate of ideas 1776, our founding Declaration presented the is what made our country great. history-shattering idea that "all men are creWe live in the greatest nation on earth. That ated equal." That same nation did not extend privilege comes at a price. Our nation faces the right to vote to women until 1920. It did serious and complex issues that can only be not extend the right to nonwhite male citizens addressed by those who recognize the comuntil 1870 or American Indians until 1924. It plexity of what it means to be an American. did not fully enforce those rights until 1965, In the face of these monumental issues, I with the Voting Rights Act. hope we will embrace the challenges and join My students also understand the challeng- my students in striving to gain the wisdom ing reality that our country occupies land that needed to be Americans. n was occupied by hundreds of native civilizations prior to the first Europeans' arrival on SAUL DREVITCH is an 8th grade American history this continent. There are Americans who look teacher at Valley Christian School in Dublin, Calif. " Getty to involve them in a lengthy and costly legal process. This was an understandable reaction in light of a 2008 "Dear Colleague" letter from the U.S. Department of Education's office for civil rights advising school districts to use alternatives in student assignment that did not include consideration of race, such as those involving the use of socioeconomic status. But since this initially restrictive reading of the Parents Involved decision, some school districts have employed promising race-conscious policies that can serve as examples for other districts. The Jefferson County school system in metropolitan Louisville, Ky., for instance, implemented a new raceconscious student-assignment policy conforming to the guidelines articulated by Kennedy's 2007 opinion. Their policy has not only survived legal scrutiny, but has also been effective in maintaining racially and economically diverse schools, according to our research. And another school board, in Lower Merion, Pa., successfully defended a challenge to its consideration of neighborhood racial composition in the redrawing of school boundaries. Even more importantly, in December 2011, the U.S. departments of Education and Justice rescinded the 2008 "Dear Colleague" letter and replaced it with comprehensive guidance to districts clarifying that, under Parents Involved, race-conscious policies were, in fact, allowed. The guidance gave general examples of permissible and effective race-conscious policies and the planning process districts should go through to be able to successfully defend their voluntary-integration policies. As Kennedy noted in Fisher II, "It remains an enduring challenge to our nation's education system to reconcile the pursuit of diversity with the constitutional promise of equal treatment and dignity." By affirming the legality of University of Texas at Austin's admission policy, the court empowered colleges and universities to continue with their efforts by considering race in their policies in a reflective manner. In so doing, the court reminded K-12 educators and administrators of the same imperative in their efforts to attain diversity and avoid the harms of racial isolation in our society, where race continues to shape educational access and success. The Fisher v. University of Texas decision is a reminder of the discretion left to school districts in Parents Involved to employ a wide range of strategies to address racial isolation and create diverse schools, including through the use of race-conscious policies tailored to a district's goals and their particular context. n ERICA FRANKENBERG is an associate professor of education and demography at the Pennsylvania State University. LILIANA M. GARCES is an associate professor of higher education and a research associate in the Center for the Study of Higher Education at Pennsylvania State University. She most recently served as counsel of record in a friend-of-the-court brief filed by 823 social scientists in Fisher II in support of the University of Texas at Austin. They are the co-directors of Pennsylvania State University's Center for Education and Civil Rights. My students understand just how prophetic George Washington was when he warned against the dangers of political parties." EDUCATION WEEK | July 20, 2016 | www.edweek.org/go/commentary | 29 http://www.edweek.org/go/commentary

Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of Education Week - July 20, 2016

Education Week - July 20, 2016
First-Generation College-Goers Try Campus Life
Dose of Empathy Found To Cut Suspension Rates
Vouchers Put Some Parents in Squeeze on Spec. Ed. Rights
Data Loom Large in Quest for New School-Quality Indicator
Detroit District Splits To Shore Up Schools
News in Brief
Report Roundup
Common Core Poses Logistical Challenges In Writing Instruction
Longtime Leader in Education Journalism Passes the Baton
Schools Prepare to Confront Questions on Race, Policing
Blogs of the Week
Landmark Equity Study Turns 50
A Persistent Divide
Digital Device Choice Has Noticeable Impact On Test Performance
Will FAFSA Changes Speed Up Aid Awards?
U.S. Supreme Court’s 2015-16 Term
States, Districts Eyeing Chance to Craft Innovative Tests
K-12 Issues: Where the Candidates Stand
Setting the Education Department’s Direction
Blogs of the Week
ALICE JOHNSON CAIN: ESSA Could Leave Vulnerable Students in Limbo
ERICA FRANKENBERG & LILIANA M. GARCES: What Fisher v. University of Texas Means for K-12 Districts
SAUL DREVITCH: The Wisdom of an 8th Grader
Letters
TopSchoolJobs Recruitment Marketplace
ADAM KIRK EDGERTON: K-12 Schools: We Have Our Own ‘Brexit’ Problem
Education Week - July 20, 2016 - Detroit District Splits To Shore Up Schools
Education Week - July 20, 2016 - 2
Education Week - July 20, 2016 - 3
Education Week - July 20, 2016 - News in Brief
Education Week - July 20, 2016 - Report Roundup
Education Week - July 20, 2016 - Common Core Poses Logistical Challenges In Writing Instruction
Education Week - July 20, 2016 - Longtime Leader in Education Journalism Passes the Baton
Education Week - July 20, 2016 - Schools Prepare to Confront Questions on Race, Policing
Education Week - July 20, 2016 - 9
Education Week - July 20, 2016 - Landmark Equity Study Turns 50
Education Week - July 20, 2016 - 11
Education Week - July 20, 2016 - A Persistent Divide
Education Week - July 20, 2016 - Digital Device Choice Has Noticeable Impact On Test Performance
Education Week - July 20, 2016 - Will FAFSA Changes Speed Up Aid Awards?
Education Week - July 20, 2016 - 15
Education Week - July 20, 2016 - 16
Education Week - July 20, 2016 - 17
Education Week - July 20, 2016 - 18
Education Week - July 20, 2016 - 19
Education Week - July 20, 2016 - 20
Education Week - July 20, 2016 - States, Districts Eyeing Chance to Craft Innovative Tests
Education Week - July 20, 2016 - K-12 Issues: Where the Candidates Stand
Education Week - July 20, 2016 - 23
Education Week - July 20, 2016 - Setting the Education Department’s Direction
Education Week - July 20, 2016 - Blogs of the Week
Education Week - July 20, 2016 - 26
Education Week - July 20, 2016 - 27
Education Week - July 20, 2016 - ERICA FRANKENBERG & LILIANA M. GARCES: What Fisher v. University of Texas Means for K-12 Districts
Education Week - July 20, 2016 - SAUL DREVITCH: The Wisdom of an 8th Grader
Education Week - July 20, 2016 - Letters
Education Week - July 20, 2016 - 31
Education Week - July 20, 2016 - 32
Education Week - July 20, 2016 - TopSchoolJobs Recruitment Marketplace
Education Week - July 20, 2016 - 34
Education Week - July 20, 2016 - 35
Education Week - July 20, 2016 - ADAM KIRK EDGERTON: K-12 Schools: We Have Our Own ‘Brexit’ Problem
Education Week - July 20, 2016 - CT1
Education Week - July 20, 2016 - CT2
Education Week - July 20, 2016 - CT3
Education Week - July 20, 2016 - CT4
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