Education Week - July 20, 2016 - 28

COMMENTARY ESSA Could Leave Vulnerable Students in Limbo W By Alice Johnson Cain hen the Every Student Succeeds Act became law last December, the education community breathed a collective sigh of relief. The bill was nearly a decade overdue after widespread dissatisfaction with its predecessor, No Child Left Behind. The conventional wisdom among ESSA's advocates was that the new law would refocus attention on the country's most vulnerable students. But seven months after ESSA's passage and a year away from its implementation, children in high-poverty schools face a new risk of losing critical resources that support their academic success and well-being. When policy issues arise, the devil is often in the details. In this case, the detail is in the language of the bill. Previously, states were required to use $15 billion annually for high-poverty, or Title I, schools to provide extra services for high-need students. ESSA may change that. Because of ambiguity in the new language of the Title I requirement, states could try to use these critical dollars from the federal government to supplant-rather than supplement-existing state and local funding. This would leave little or no money for extra services that more than 21 million low-income students in 56,000 Title I schools need. It also flies in the face of Title I's stated purpose: to provide all students equal access to a high-quality education. Given the high stakes, Congress continues to argue about how to implement the law, most recently at a House hearing late last month. In April, a panel of state chiefs, educators, and others assembled to develop rules for how states should carry out the law's requirements. Reaching no agreement, they were disbanded. The responsibility of developing ESSA regulations thus fell to the U.S. Department of Education, led by Secretary of Education John B. King Jr. As executive vice president of Teach Plus, a national nonprofit that prepares teachers to play leadership roles in decisions of policy and practice, I have heard concerns from teachers in high-poverty schools who say the ultimate success or failure of ESSA rests on how we resolve this funding dispute. In May, more than 600 Title I teachers and principals (including a number of Teach Plus educators) signed a letter to the secretary asking him to issue regulatory language that would clarify any misunderstandings about Title I school funding prior to the law's implementation. In underscoring that letter and the importance of refocusing our attention on our nation's most vulnerable students, I'd like to offer these suggestions to Secretary King: * Don't allow states to cut services that are making a difference in the lives of students. Teach Plus recently polled more than 1,000 teachers nationwide to ask whether their Title I schools have sufficient resources to meet students' learning needs. Nearly three out of four responded with a resounding no. They identified a long list of unmet needs, including requests for literacy and math coaches; access to technology; and more counselors and social workers. Current Title I funding generally supports extra instruction in reading and math, as well as preschool, after-school, and summer programs that extend classroom curricula and other supports. As any teacher will tell you, students who face obstacles of poverty need these supports. Listen to the teachers. * Don't let Congress do your job. No matter how long the current political theater around ESSA lasts, Congress will never agree how best to interpret the tweak to the Title I language once the law is in place. The legislative branch passed the law; now, it is up to the executive branch, not Congress, to oversee its implementation. * Continue to seek solutions. The Congressional Research Service expressed concern in a recent report that the Education Department's first proposal to regulate Title I spending went beyond what ESSA will allow. The department should now use creative problem-solving to explore possible alternatives that would meet the letter and spirit of the law. * Ask the critics for help. Leaders in education who advocate a hands-off approach say the sky will fall if the department does anything beyond sitting on its hands. Critics of the department's initial proposal should meet the department halfway and lend their expertise to craft a workable solution in the best interest of students. * Title I schools need great teachers. Some state and district leaders are afraid the department could impose regulations requiring the forced transfer of teachers. However, Teach Plus has evidence across three states that some of the best teachers will flock to high-need schools under the right set of conditions. The Bennet-Collins amendment to ESSA, which enables states to use funds for teacher-leadership programs-including mentoring and coaching roles and professional development led by master teachers-also has enormous potential to push for a more equitable distribution of high-quality teachers based on incentives rather than mandates. Strong regulations are necessary to ensure Title I dollars play their essential part in fulfilling our nation's commitment to the next generation. Only then can ESSA live up to its name and offer every student a real chance at success in the classroom and beyond. n ALICE JOHNSON CAIN is the executive vice president of Teach Plus. What Fisher v. University of Texas Means for K-12 Districts T he U.S. Supreme Court's long-awaited decision last month in Fisher v. University of Texas, a case challenging the constitutionality of a race-conscious student-admissions policy, affirmed that the policy adopted by the University of Texas at Austin satisfied the requirements of the equal-protection clause of the 14th Amendment. The 4-3 majority opinion provided much-needed guidance to postsecondary institutions for how they can lawfully consider race in admissions. As scholars studying racial inequality in education who have contributed to friendof-the-court briefs the last three times the high court has considered educational diversity cases, we are heartened by this decision and by the attention it brings to the importance of diversity at all levels of education. Others have rightly hailed it as a huge victory for postsecondary institutions in their efforts to further their educational missions. But what does the decision mean for K-12 schools? The important implications for K-12 education rest with the court's affirmation of policies that seek to further diversify and achieve the promise of equal educational opportunity for all students. As a recent report from the U.S. Government Accountability Office illustrated, segregation by race and class in our nation's K-12 public schools is rising. Research demonstrates the serious consequences these segregative trends have on students and their communities. The Fisher case first reached the high court in 2012, after Abigail Fisher, a white female applicant who was denied undergraduate admission to the University of Texas at Austin, sought to reverse a lowercourt ruling that the institution's policy was constitutional. After initially sending the case back to the lower court to conduct a more rigorous assessment, the U.S. Supreme Court finally settled the case on June 23, affirming the lower court's ruling that the university had justified its con- sideration of race and that its policy was constitutional. This second opinion, known as Fisher II and authored by Justice Anthony M. Kennedy, confirmed that postsecondary institutions can pursue the educational benefits of diversity when they provide a reasoned, principled explanation for how diversity serves the institution's educational mission. Kennedy's majority opinion resonates with his concurring opinion in Parents Involved in Community Schools v. Seattle School District No. 1 (2007), which affirmed the compelling interest K-12 schools have in diversity and in avoiding the harms of racial isolation. Parents Involved was a splintered decision that upheld these in- " Educators can consider race in their policies and practices, as long as they do so in a careful and limited manner." 28 | EDUCATION WEEK | July 20, 2016 | www.edweek.org/go/commentary Getty By Erica Frankenberg & Liliana M. Garces terests while striking down two districts' voluntary-integration policies for not being narrowly tailored in their consideration of race. While Parents Involved and Fisher II had different outcomes, the resounding principle in both decisions is the same: Educators can consider race in their policies and practices, as long as they do so in a careful and limited manner. Perhaps because of the various, conflicting opinions argued-none of which had a clear majority of justices-the Parents Involved decision has been misunderstood to stand for the proposition that race cannot be a factor in voluntary school integration efforts. But importantly, in his 2007 opinion, Kennedy outlined strategies-some of which included the use of race-that he believed would be narrowly tailored. The key to each of those strategies was that when school districts considered race, they did not make assignment decisions based on the individual race or ethnicity of a student, but instead on the racial composition of a geographical area. The high court's endorsement of raceconscious policies in Fisher II is a timely reminder for K-12 schools of this latitude allowed in Parents Involved, particularly because the on-the-ground interpretation of the 2007 decision by school boards and their legal advisers was often more restrictive than the decision itself. In the initial aftermath of Parents Involved, for example, some districts preemptively discontinued the use of race-conscious policies out of concern that not doing so would continue http://www.edweek.org/go/commentary

Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of Education Week - July 20, 2016

Education Week - July 20, 2016
First-Generation College-Goers Try Campus Life
Dose of Empathy Found To Cut Suspension Rates
Vouchers Put Some Parents in Squeeze on Spec. Ed. Rights
Data Loom Large in Quest for New School-Quality Indicator
Detroit District Splits To Shore Up Schools
News in Brief
Report Roundup
Common Core Poses Logistical Challenges In Writing Instruction
Longtime Leader in Education Journalism Passes the Baton
Schools Prepare to Confront Questions on Race, Policing
Blogs of the Week
Landmark Equity Study Turns 50
A Persistent Divide
Digital Device Choice Has Noticeable Impact On Test Performance
Will FAFSA Changes Speed Up Aid Awards?
U.S. Supreme Court’s 2015-16 Term
States, Districts Eyeing Chance to Craft Innovative Tests
K-12 Issues: Where the Candidates Stand
Setting the Education Department’s Direction
Blogs of the Week
ALICE JOHNSON CAIN: ESSA Could Leave Vulnerable Students in Limbo
ERICA FRANKENBERG & LILIANA M. GARCES: What Fisher v. University of Texas Means for K-12 Districts
SAUL DREVITCH: The Wisdom of an 8th Grader
Letters
TopSchoolJobs Recruitment Marketplace
ADAM KIRK EDGERTON: K-12 Schools: We Have Our Own ‘Brexit’ Problem
Education Week - July 20, 2016 - Detroit District Splits To Shore Up Schools
Education Week - July 20, 2016 - 2
Education Week - July 20, 2016 - 3
Education Week - July 20, 2016 - News in Brief
Education Week - July 20, 2016 - Report Roundup
Education Week - July 20, 2016 - Common Core Poses Logistical Challenges In Writing Instruction
Education Week - July 20, 2016 - Longtime Leader in Education Journalism Passes the Baton
Education Week - July 20, 2016 - Schools Prepare to Confront Questions on Race, Policing
Education Week - July 20, 2016 - 9
Education Week - July 20, 2016 - Landmark Equity Study Turns 50
Education Week - July 20, 2016 - 11
Education Week - July 20, 2016 - A Persistent Divide
Education Week - July 20, 2016 - Digital Device Choice Has Noticeable Impact On Test Performance
Education Week - July 20, 2016 - Will FAFSA Changes Speed Up Aid Awards?
Education Week - July 20, 2016 - 15
Education Week - July 20, 2016 - 16
Education Week - July 20, 2016 - 17
Education Week - July 20, 2016 - 18
Education Week - July 20, 2016 - 19
Education Week - July 20, 2016 - 20
Education Week - July 20, 2016 - States, Districts Eyeing Chance to Craft Innovative Tests
Education Week - July 20, 2016 - K-12 Issues: Where the Candidates Stand
Education Week - July 20, 2016 - 23
Education Week - July 20, 2016 - Setting the Education Department’s Direction
Education Week - July 20, 2016 - Blogs of the Week
Education Week - July 20, 2016 - 26
Education Week - July 20, 2016 - 27
Education Week - July 20, 2016 - ERICA FRANKENBERG & LILIANA M. GARCES: What Fisher v. University of Texas Means for K-12 Districts
Education Week - July 20, 2016 - SAUL DREVITCH: The Wisdom of an 8th Grader
Education Week - July 20, 2016 - Letters
Education Week - July 20, 2016 - 31
Education Week - July 20, 2016 - 32
Education Week - July 20, 2016 - TopSchoolJobs Recruitment Marketplace
Education Week - July 20, 2016 - 34
Education Week - July 20, 2016 - 35
Education Week - July 20, 2016 - ADAM KIRK EDGERTON: K-12 Schools: We Have Our Own ‘Brexit’ Problem
Education Week - July 20, 2016 - CT1
Education Week - July 20, 2016 - CT2
Education Week - July 20, 2016 - CT3
Education Week - July 20, 2016 - CT4
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