Education Week - July 20, 2016 - 10

Q&A Landmark Equity Study Turns 50 A chat with Coleman report co-author With Johns Hopkins University researcher JAMES MCPARTLAND This month marks the 50th anniversary of the release of the report "Equality of Educational Opportunity." The study came to be known as the Coleman report after its lead author, University of Chicago sociologist James S. Coleman. And it changed the debate on how schools, families, and communities affect student learning. Johns Hopkins University researcher JAMES MCPARTLAND, the study's only living co-author, talked with Education Week Assistant Editor Sarah D. Sparks earlier this month about the report's legacy. The transcript of their conversation has been edited for clarity and brevity. The study came out in the heat of desegregation efforts. What lessons do your findings then have for the school diversity discussions today? MCPARTLAND: There really was a great distinction for both black and white kids of their test scores and their racial attitudes by the [percentage of white students] in their class. The more desegregated [the class], the higher the test scores for both blacks and whites and the more accepting were their racial attitudes. One of the big findings of Coleman was, of course, climate, the school environment of fellow students. That was more important than the quality of the teachers and facilities [in influencing student achievement]. I am a desegregation advocate. A parent should be able to consider that diversity is part of learning, growing up. It will benefit in the long run. It will not hurt the test scores. Parents should have more information to evaluate [the benefits of diversity] as an element of their school choice. AP-File What have people most often misunderstood about the report? Lawyers George E.C. Hayes, left, Thurgood Marshall, center, and James M. Nabrit led the 1954 court fight to desegregate schools. Twelve years later, the Coleman study found segregation was still an issue. BLOGS MCPARTLAND: I think it's overstated the weakness of schools. Only about 15 percent of the total variance [in achievement] was due to schools. The reason: There was very little variation in the schools [at the time]. They were all having similar effects, not weak effects. There was kind of a move [after Coleman] into research and development, inventing new school models and then evaluating them so we could see the potential of a school that was really created to have an impact on lower-class kids. Today's debates on the role of mindset and motivation in learning were foreshadowed in the findings, weren't they? MCPARTLAND: We call it control of environment, a sense of utility. Do my actions count? Can I change my life or am I just a billiard ball in the social forces of the world? It turned out that was a big black-white student difference. Black kids really felt more futile and [that] life is more luck than effort. That also has become a part of reform. I think that is another consequence of the Coleman [report]. It was not a matter of selfesteem, it was a matter of feeling in control of your future. How can you build that into a school experience? I think that was an overlooked finding for a while. What has the study shown about teachers' role in learning? MCPARTLAND: We did give teachers a test- voluntary, not timed or anything, just fill out the questionnaire. It was hardly a precise measure of knowledge or teaching ability. Teacher quality was measured by this silly little 20-item test. It was the most important teacher variable as I recall, which seemed to say you want the best teachers. You want a well-trained, intellectual presence in the classroom. [In the findings, there] was very little on instruction. How do you teach reading comprehension? How do you teach math problem-solving? All those nitty-gritty details of how you engage a kid's mind and energies in a classroom. We really did not touch that at all. It was more about things you would spend money on. This was a huge undertaking-a study of more than 650,000 students in districts nationwide and one of the first educational equity studies. Were there any times you worried it wouldn't come together? MCPARTLAND: The whole sample was in this box-all of the cards, addresses, everything. [Once, colleague Bob York and I] hop on the train out of Washington on our way to Princeton with my box of the whole sample. We said, "Let's go to the bar [car] and have a drink." I left the box on the seat. We go back. The whole Coleman study is gone. It is a true story. I only told Coleman the story years later. The car has been [decoupled], it is on its way to Harrisburg [Pa.]. I got off at Philadelphia and went to the station master and said, "I am with the federal government; you have got to stop that train." Somehow, they found the train. They found the box, and they took the box off at the Harrisburg station. I rented a car, got it back to Princeton by our 9 a.m. meeting. No one ever knew the difference. ONLINE EXTRAS www.edweek.org/go/coleman * Watch the entire conversation with James McPartland. * Take a quiz: What did teacher quality look like in 1966? * Compare: What's changed for schools since the Coleman study? www.edweek.org/go/blogs Powerful Rifles at Center of Debate Also Used by Some School Police | RULES FOR ENGAGEMENT | Recent debates over guns, which have touched heavily on school shootings, have often focused on the availability of powerful semi-automatic rifles. So it may come as a surprise that some school police departments stock these types of guns, including AR-15s and modified weapons obtained through a military-surplus program. Questions about whether school-based officers should obtain or carry such powerful weapons run parallel to larger questions in debates over how to prevent school shootings: Is the burden of addressing such rare but devastating incidents on schools? Or should society play a greater role through changes like tighter gun restrictions and increased access to mental-health programs? One thing is for sure: The use of powerful weapons capable of killing with speed and accuracy has weighed heavily in school safety discussions. Around the country, lawmakers have passed measures requiring more regular school lockdown drills, annual audits of school safety plans, and inspections of buildings to find ways to limit access and passage for armed intruders. 10 | EDUCATION WEEK | July 20, 2016 | www.edweek.org In some cases, school police have opted to carry semiautomatic rifles themselves, sometimes raising questions about the role of police in schools. A few examples: *School-based police in at least 22 districts in eight states have acquired modified M-14 and M-16 rifles, grenade launchers, and fortified vehicles through a military-surplus program, watchdog groups found in 2014. *In 2013, the president of the San Diego school board questioned school police officers' use of AR-15s, a decision that was made without board approval, the Union-Tribune reported. *In 2015, the school board in Compton Unified in south Los Angeles County approved a policy that would allow school police to carry AR-15s in the trunks of their patrol cars, drawing national media coverage.  -EVIE BLAD School Credits Saturday Classes For Remarkable Turnaround | TIME & LEARNING | The plan to offer Saturday classes at a Washington state elementary school started as a joke. Dana Reynolds jokingly told her 3rd graders that students should come to school on Saturdays, and they ran with it. That's how the Saturday School Learning Club was born at Thompson Elementary in Tacoma, where more than 70 percent of students receive free or reduced-price lunch. The club began meeting in February and had its last session of the past school year on May 21. Its creation coincided with the school increasing its focus on academics, and administrators and teachers are calling it a big success. After Saturday classes began, Thompson went from being ranked 14th out of 17 schools in the district for academic achievement in grades 3-5 to being ranked fifth. Principal Ralph Wisner says the Saturday classes also led to an attitude change for many students. They began to think they could achieve, and they wanted to be successful in school. They also took ownership over their learning. Initially, the club, which is voluntary, was supposed to be just for students who needed a little extra help, but it became a place for everyone. Students attended school from 9 a.m. to noon. The program was supported by extended-day funds the district received for Title I schools for disadvantaged students. The school is already making plans to have the Saturday School Learning Club again next year.  -MARVA HINTON http://www.edweek.org/go/coleman http://www.edweek.org/go/blogs http://www.edweek.org

Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of Education Week - July 20, 2016

Education Week - July 20, 2016
First-Generation College-Goers Try Campus Life
Dose of Empathy Found To Cut Suspension Rates
Vouchers Put Some Parents in Squeeze on Spec. Ed. Rights
Data Loom Large in Quest for New School-Quality Indicator
Detroit District Splits To Shore Up Schools
News in Brief
Report Roundup
Common Core Poses Logistical Challenges In Writing Instruction
Longtime Leader in Education Journalism Passes the Baton
Schools Prepare to Confront Questions on Race, Policing
Blogs of the Week
Landmark Equity Study Turns 50
A Persistent Divide
Digital Device Choice Has Noticeable Impact On Test Performance
Will FAFSA Changes Speed Up Aid Awards?
U.S. Supreme Court’s 2015-16 Term
States, Districts Eyeing Chance to Craft Innovative Tests
K-12 Issues: Where the Candidates Stand
Setting the Education Department’s Direction
Blogs of the Week
ALICE JOHNSON CAIN: ESSA Could Leave Vulnerable Students in Limbo
ERICA FRANKENBERG & LILIANA M. GARCES: What Fisher v. University of Texas Means for K-12 Districts
SAUL DREVITCH: The Wisdom of an 8th Grader
Letters
TopSchoolJobs Recruitment Marketplace
ADAM KIRK EDGERTON: K-12 Schools: We Have Our Own ‘Brexit’ Problem
Education Week - July 20, 2016 - Detroit District Splits To Shore Up Schools
Education Week - July 20, 2016 - 2
Education Week - July 20, 2016 - 3
Education Week - July 20, 2016 - News in Brief
Education Week - July 20, 2016 - Report Roundup
Education Week - July 20, 2016 - Common Core Poses Logistical Challenges In Writing Instruction
Education Week - July 20, 2016 - Longtime Leader in Education Journalism Passes the Baton
Education Week - July 20, 2016 - Schools Prepare to Confront Questions on Race, Policing
Education Week - July 20, 2016 - 9
Education Week - July 20, 2016 - Landmark Equity Study Turns 50
Education Week - July 20, 2016 - 11
Education Week - July 20, 2016 - A Persistent Divide
Education Week - July 20, 2016 - Digital Device Choice Has Noticeable Impact On Test Performance
Education Week - July 20, 2016 - Will FAFSA Changes Speed Up Aid Awards?
Education Week - July 20, 2016 - 15
Education Week - July 20, 2016 - 16
Education Week - July 20, 2016 - 17
Education Week - July 20, 2016 - 18
Education Week - July 20, 2016 - 19
Education Week - July 20, 2016 - 20
Education Week - July 20, 2016 - States, Districts Eyeing Chance to Craft Innovative Tests
Education Week - July 20, 2016 - K-12 Issues: Where the Candidates Stand
Education Week - July 20, 2016 - 23
Education Week - July 20, 2016 - Setting the Education Department’s Direction
Education Week - July 20, 2016 - Blogs of the Week
Education Week - July 20, 2016 - 26
Education Week - July 20, 2016 - 27
Education Week - July 20, 2016 - ERICA FRANKENBERG & LILIANA M. GARCES: What Fisher v. University of Texas Means for K-12 Districts
Education Week - July 20, 2016 - SAUL DREVITCH: The Wisdom of an 8th Grader
Education Week - July 20, 2016 - Letters
Education Week - July 20, 2016 - 31
Education Week - July 20, 2016 - 32
Education Week - July 20, 2016 - TopSchoolJobs Recruitment Marketplace
Education Week - July 20, 2016 - 34
Education Week - July 20, 2016 - 35
Education Week - July 20, 2016 - ADAM KIRK EDGERTON: K-12 Schools: We Have Our Own ‘Brexit’ Problem
Education Week - July 20, 2016 - CT1
Education Week - July 20, 2016 - CT2
Education Week - July 20, 2016 - CT3
Education Week - July 20, 2016 - CT4
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