Education Week - June 17, 2020 - 19

School Closures Always Hurt.
They Hurt Even More Now

Schools are one of the last social safety nets many families have left

A

merica at large is facing
two pandemics: racism
and COVID-19. But, lowincome Black and Brown
children in America are
facing one more, the temporary and permanent
closure of their schools.
For Black and Brown children living in poverty,
the school building is a portal for crucial assistance,
where students, their families, and members of the
broader community receive a variety of resources
from free meals to flu shots. The closure of the school
building deactivates the distribution of those same
resources, and in doing so, reveals the irreplaceable
role that they place in filling the gaping holes in our
weak social safety net.
Closed school buildings result in a loss of routine
child care that makes going to work every day possible
for the 11 million parents with school-aged children
who live in poverty. For the nearly 1.5 million students
experiencing homelessness, school closures remove
an important source of stability and access to social
workers and health-care providers. For the 13 million
children experiencing hunger, they disrupt a critical
source of food that students rely on to maintain a
nutritional diet.
Since their closure, institutions have worked to
continue providing these supports, but their efforts
are not enough. A recent report by Reuters found that
roughly 75 percent of districts have served 4.5 million
fewer meals a week since closing, and about a third
stopped providing federally required services to their
special needs students. Local stories from such places
as Evanston, Ill., and Philadelphia further confirm the
inability for school systems to provide the same level
of service while physically shuttered.
This is a tragedy. It is also a moment with lessons
that we cannot afford to miss. Schools play important
roles beyond educating our children: They house
them, feed them, and accommodate their unique
needs.
We are scholars who study school closures,
although not quite like what's happening during the
coronavirus pandemic. We investigate the ways in
which permanent school closures negatively affect

communities that rely on these institutions for social
and political connection, kinship and belonging,
public space, and civic mobilization. These negative
impacts fall disproportionately on places with higher
numbers of people living in poverty and on Black
and Brown communities, further entrenching racial
disparities in schools and neighborhoods.
And while the effects of temporary school closures
differ in many important ways from permanent
closures, we expect similar consequences-beyond
the much-discussed loss of learning-to ripple across
the many dimensions that tie local communities to
their schools. In response to protests and riots on
behalf of Black people killed by the police, Chicago
recently decided to temporarily suspend its meal
program for 24 hours, leaving thousands of students
without access to free food. (An average of more
than 200,000 meals have been handed out daily in
the city to families in need since the schools closed
in March.) This decision illustrated how easily these
pandemics-racism, closings, and COVID-19-
converge, leaving schools to reckon with the question
of their role in this moment.
Calls to action have been made to remove cops
from schools, to redevelop the curriculum to focus on
anti-racist pedagogy, and to develop mechanisms to
reduce learning loss across race. These are all efforts
that we endorse and support, but they all require
one important thing: increased funding for our
schools. Increased funding will not only support these
necessary changes at the school level but also ensure
that educational institutions may adequately support
the welfare functions they have taken on as America's
social safety net has weakened.
To be sure, the fact that our most vulnerable
neighbors are reliant on schools for meeting basic
physical, social, and emotional needs makes clear
that our social safety net is woefully inadequate to
mitigate the consequences of the rapidly escalating
inequality in this country. Nonetheless, it also makes
painfully apparent that this is a role that schools play
even now-and that they will continue to play when
the most acute threat has passed.
Temporary school closures are certainly necessary
for public health at this moment. And summer will
follow shortly after. But there are actions that federal

and local policymakers can take to mitigate the
harms, both immediately and once this pandemic
ends. At the federal level, the next stimulus package
should be built around a conception of schools as
integral to our welfare state. It should include money
for social-service and medical supports to deal with
the damaging mental- and physical-health impacts
associated with the lingering effects of COVID-19
and racism. It should include support for communitywide infrastructure such as community alternative
policing in schools and funding for schools to
radically reimagine curriculums and achievement
paradigms to be anti-racist and intersectional.
At the state and local levels, any new threats to
close schools-and we expect there will be many in
the face of post-pandemic budget cuts-should be
confronted with an accurate understanding of what
schools actually do. Rather than evaluate schools
with a narrow focus on academic performance,
enrollment, or building capacity, which often
perpetuate inequities, we call on districts and the
public to judge schools on their broader civic and
social purposes. We urge school districts and the
public to think creatively, not only about how to
make up for loss of learning but also loss of social,
mental-, and physical-health support that schools
provide every day in lieu of an adequate social
safety net.
The current $13.5 billion allocated under the CARES
Act is not enough-and currently faces the threat of
further dilution as the U.S. Department of Education
seeks to divert more of it to private school students in
ways that would diminish funds available for the most
vulnerable students in public schools.
In the end, the closure of schools has revealed
the many roles that schools play, particularly in
the lives of our most disinvested Black and Brown
communities. And we demand that all responses to
these diverging pandemics of racism, COVID-19,
and school closure position public schools as a
necessary part of any and all discussions, plans,
and budgets regarding America's welfare state
and thus the democratic future of this nation. The
mental, social, physical, educational, political, and
social well-being of the 50.8 million students, their
families, and our entire society depends on it. n

By Sally Nuamah,
Ryan Good,
Ariel Bierbaum,
& Elaine Simon
NUAMAH is an assistant
professor of urban politics
at Northwestern University.
GOOD is an assistant
professor of urban studies at
Eastern Mennonite University.
BIERBAUM is an assistant
professor of urban studies
and planning at the University
of Maryland. SIMON is the codirector of the Urban Studies
Program at the University of
Pennsylvania. They all study
school closures in the United
States.

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EDUCATION WEEK | June 17, 2020 | www.edweek.org/go/opinion | 19


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Education Week - June 17, 2020

Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of Education Week - June 17, 2020

Education Week - June 17, 2020
Are America’s Schools Ready For Tough Talk on Racism?
Briefly Stated
Q&A: What’s Next for School Policing in Minneapolis
Schools Left Hanging as States Dither on Budget Cuts
The Socially Distanced School Day
Marny Xiong, School Board Chair and Social Justice Champion, Dies at 31 of COVID-19
Catholic School Closures Rise Amid Pandemic, Recession
Summer School Learning Plans On Shaky Ground
COVID-19 Forces the Question: Should the Youngest Learners Have Devices?
I Need More From Schools Than Lip Service About Racism
School Closures Always Hurt. They Hurt Even More Now
EdWeek Top School Jobs
For Teachers Who Understand Racism Is Real
Education Week - June 17, 2020 - Are America’s Schools Ready For Tough Talk on Racism?
Education Week - June 17, 2020 - Briefly Stated
Education Week - June 17, 2020 - 3
Education Week - June 17, 2020 - Q&A: What’s Next for School Policing in Minneapolis
Education Week - June 17, 2020 - 5
Education Week - June 17, 2020 - 6
Education Week - June 17, 2020 - Schools Left Hanging as States Dither on Budget Cuts
Education Week - June 17, 2020 - 8
Education Week - June 17, 2020 - 9
Education Week - June 17, 2020 - The Socially Distanced School Day
Education Week - June 17, 2020 - Marny Xiong, School Board Chair and Social Justice Champion, Dies at 31 of COVID-19
Education Week - June 17, 2020 - Catholic School Closures Rise Amid Pandemic, Recession
Education Week - June 17, 2020 - 13
Education Week - June 17, 2020 - Summer School Learning Plans On Shaky Ground
Education Week - June 17, 2020 - 15
Education Week - June 17, 2020 - COVID-19 Forces the Question: Should the Youngest Learners Have Devices?
Education Week - June 17, 2020 - 17
Education Week - June 17, 2020 - I Need More From Schools Than Lip Service About Racism
Education Week - June 17, 2020 - School Closures Always Hurt. They Hurt Even More Now
Education Week - June 17, 2020 - 20
Education Week - June 17, 2020 - 21
Education Week - June 17, 2020 - 22
Education Week - June 17, 2020 - EdWeek Top School Jobs
Education Week - June 17, 2020 - For Teachers Who Understand Racism Is Real
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