Education Week - June 17, 2020 - 16

By David Saleh Rauf
Months before the coronavirus upended everyday life, a rural district
in central Minnesota started giving
Chromebooks to all of its high school
students.
It was the first time that devices
owned by the Brainerd Public Schools
were assigned to students to carry
throughout the day and to take home,
representing the next step in the evolution of its 1-to-1 laptop program. The
district already offered classroom devices for every student in grades 5-8.
In its elementary schools, however,
devices were far less available: a couple of iPads or Chromebooks in each
class. At that time in the fall, 1-to-1
computing in grades K-4 was still an
idea being researched.
And then, the COVID-19 outbreak
hit this spring, almost instantly moving the Brainerd schools and nearly
every other district in the country into
full-time remote learning. In that environment, the issue of devices for elementary students suddenly required
immediate attention, leading to the
purchase of 1,000 new devices in
mid-March, giving the district a ratio
of one for every two elementary students. But the district decided to stop
short of purchasing enough devices to
create 1-to-1 environments in elementary schools.
"We decided putting all that money
into 1-to-1 for K-4 didn't make a whole
lot of sense," said Sarah Porisch,
the director of technology for the
6,700-student district. "Our teachers and principals at the elementary
level did not see us being 1-to-1 after
distance learning."

elementary students, sometimes
as early as kindergarten, remains a
somewhat unsettled approach. Although intended to boost students'
tech skills and empower more creative work, education experts worry
about too much screen time at a
young age. Some worry that too
much device use can affect brain development and take away from more
age appropriate hands-on teaching
approaches. There's also a financial
element-is it really the best use of
limited district dollars?
This spring's national remote learning experiment, and the lingering uncertainty of what instruction will look
like next year-in particular if coronavirus ravages the country again-have
changed some perceptions, however.
Experts who viewed 1-to-1 programs at elementary schools as optional now say it's worth another look
because of the need to keep students
and teachers connected during distance learning.
Elizabeth Keren-Kolb, a clinical as-

app without prior instruction "and it's
a frustrating thing for him."
"If you talk to K-2 teachers they
will say how difficult it has been for
students to navigate the tools, many
tools, they've never used before,"
she said. "Pre-COVID, I would have
said elementary schools don't need
to be 1-to-1 because you need social
interaction. But post-COVID, I've
recognized that not being able to take
devices home to work with caregivers,
there is a disconnect between school
and their everyday lives."

'Not a Perfect World'
GG Weisenfeld, an assistant research professor at the National Institute for Early Education Research at
Rutgers University, said most earlychildhood experts agree there are better ways for districts to spend money
than on devices for young learners, in
particular preschoolers.
But "right now, it's not a perfect
world," she said.

Does your school have at least one device
for every student (1-to-1 computing)?
Elementary

47%

Middle school

69%

High school

72%

*Results show responses from teachers

What About Screen Time?

SOURCE: EdWeek Research Center survey, 2020

The coronavirus school building
closures that swept the country this
spring and led to purchases of new
laptops and tablets for remote learning have also forced districts to make
tough decisions now-instead of
years down the road-about 1-to-1
computing programs for their youngest learners.
While the concept of providing a
laptop for every student has gained
steam in the last decade, it has resonated much stronger with middle
and high schools, where students can
work longer unsupervised and the
curriculum can be geared to revolve
around more digital assignments.
As it is, 47 percent of elementary
teachers report their schools are
equipping each student with a device,
according to a nationally representative survey of teachers from early May
by the EdWeek Research Center. In
comparison, about 70 percent of middle and high school teachers said their
schools had adopted 1-to-1 programs.
Putting devices in the hands of

sociate professor of education technology at the University of Michigan, said that in the past elementary
schools have been "all over the place"
when it comes to device strategy. Having one device for every two or three
students was fine, she said, because
learning at elementary school grades
is dependent on social interaction and
face-to-face instruction.
But Keren-Kolb, who is currently
surveying K-12 teachers, parents, and
students about their experiences with
remote learning, said having younger
students and their families become
more familiar with how to use devices
beforehand would have helped when
districts rushed to adopt distance
learning.
She's experienced it in her own
home. Keren-Kolb said her 2nd grade
son used an iPad in class and a mobile
app called Seesaw but only to send pictures home-and that was the extent
of tech usage. Now, he's being asked to
complete classwork on the device and

16 | EDUCATION WEEK | June 17, 2020 | www.edweek.org

"There is a need to have some
contact with your school or teacher
and your peers and having a device
is necessary to do that right now,"
said Weisenfeld, noting that device
usage in these situations "needs to
be limited, supervised, and carefully
constructed."
In northeastern West Virginia, close
to the Maryland border, Gayle Allen's
kindergartners at Springfield-Green
Spring Elementary School used iPads
daily for anywhere between 30 to 45
minutes when classes were held in a
brick-and-mortar setting.
Several different apps allowed
students to do things like listen to
stories, learn the basics of coding,
draw or record their voices, and send
messages home. But even when used
in short spurts like a 30-minute interval, it can be too long for some students and "their eyes start to glaze
over," she said.
And when the devices were introduced to her class several years ago,

Jeff Chiu/AP

COVID-19 Forces the Question:
Should the Youngest Learners
Have Devices?
Miriam Amacker, a 4th grader at Sunnyside Elementary School in San
Francisco, uses a laptop to do schoolwork at home.

they were met with an ice-cold reception from the veteran teacher and her
students, said Allen, an educator with
more than three decades of classroom
experience. But now she said ed-tech
vendors have improved the variety of
digital content offered and her students are finding activities on the devices much more engaging.
"When we first went 1-to-1 with
iPads, I remember making the kids
get on them and they truly went
'Uhhh.' They wanted to go back to
the blocks," she said. "Now, it's something they want to do. They like it."
Students get trained to use the devices at the beginning of the school
year, and Allen said all the activities
assigned through apps are either enrichment or to practice skills already
taught-no brand new learning. The
consistent exposure to the devices,
along with using them in different
ways, was particularly helpful when
shifting to remote learning. Now,
most of Allen's students depend on
Seesaw to complete projects at home
with little fuss.
"Once we switched to home learning, that was the app everybody was
most familiar working on, so it was
easy to do," she said of the transition
to remote learning.
The problem was that 7 of her 19
students did not have access to a device or broadband at home. And the
school's 1-to-1 program does not send
devices home with students, and will
not even during COVID-19 school
building closures.
David Wick, president of the National Association of Elementary
School Principals, said families are
struggling in some cases to get access
to devices and in a landscape where
it remains unclear what learning will
look like next school year. "It's certainly much more equitable to have
the schools provide the devices for
students," he said.
Wick said elementary schools don't
typically send devices home because
it's difficult for students at that age
to take proper care of a piece of
district-owned technology. And, he
said, learning at that level generally
doesn't flourish if it's done in an isolated environment.
But given that families in some
cases are having to share devices
among multiple siblings, "now we're
getting to the point where it makes
much more sense for kids in elementary to have one of their own," he said.
"It's very difficult not to have 1-to-1

when there's such high needs of student accessibility at this time," Wick
said.

Lesson in Equity
Sharing devices with siblings has
become part of the normal procedure
for some during remote learning. In
fact, 44 percent of teachers and district leaders report that the majority
of their students are sharing devices
with family members or friends, according to a nationally representative
EdWeek Research Center survey.
That was also one of the reasons
driving Maureen Brummett, superintendent of Newington Public Schools
in Connecticut, to move elementary
schools in her district to 1-to-1 status
in time for the next school year.
Brummett said her district of
4,000 students currently offers one
device for each student in grades
3-12. But because of COVID-19 closures "we're putting forward a faster
deployment right now down to grade
K," she said. Even prekindergarten
students will have access to devices,
but they won't be going home. If remote learning becomes the standard
again in the fall, Brummett said she's
open to the idea of letting the pre-K
devices go home but it won't be the
default option and would require discussion with teachers.
"I can't tell you the complaints we
got initially. We had parents saying
'I have three kids and one Chromebook.' We use the word equity a lot.
If you don't have the devices and connectivity, you're at a disadvantage,"
she said. "This is a huge lesson in
equity. It made us realize we need to
get every child their own device. If I
had any doubts in my mind prior to
COVID, they're long gone."
At the Brainerd Public Schools, the
rural district that opted to go with one
device for every two students at the
elementary-school level instead of a
full-blown 1-to-1 program, the decision was based on a bigger picture
outlook than just the need to equip
students with devices for school
building shutdowns.
Porisch, the district's director of
technology, said there's still a need to
analyze more data about the impact
personal devices have on the youngest
learners. Plus, she said, the curriculum at that level is not based on technology, "so we did not want to spend
the money to do 1-to-1 when it wasn't
needed at this point."


http://www.edweek.org

Education Week - June 17, 2020

Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of Education Week - June 17, 2020

Education Week - June 17, 2020
Are America’s Schools Ready For Tough Talk on Racism?
Briefly Stated
Q&A: What’s Next for School Policing in Minneapolis
Schools Left Hanging as States Dither on Budget Cuts
The Socially Distanced School Day
Marny Xiong, School Board Chair and Social Justice Champion, Dies at 31 of COVID-19
Catholic School Closures Rise Amid Pandemic, Recession
Summer School Learning Plans On Shaky Ground
COVID-19 Forces the Question: Should the Youngest Learners Have Devices?
I Need More From Schools Than Lip Service About Racism
School Closures Always Hurt. They Hurt Even More Now
EdWeek Top School Jobs
For Teachers Who Understand Racism Is Real
Education Week - June 17, 2020 - Are America’s Schools Ready For Tough Talk on Racism?
Education Week - June 17, 2020 - Briefly Stated
Education Week - June 17, 2020 - 3
Education Week - June 17, 2020 - Q&A: What’s Next for School Policing in Minneapolis
Education Week - June 17, 2020 - 5
Education Week - June 17, 2020 - 6
Education Week - June 17, 2020 - Schools Left Hanging as States Dither on Budget Cuts
Education Week - June 17, 2020 - 8
Education Week - June 17, 2020 - 9
Education Week - June 17, 2020 - The Socially Distanced School Day
Education Week - June 17, 2020 - Marny Xiong, School Board Chair and Social Justice Champion, Dies at 31 of COVID-19
Education Week - June 17, 2020 - Catholic School Closures Rise Amid Pandemic, Recession
Education Week - June 17, 2020 - 13
Education Week - June 17, 2020 - Summer School Learning Plans On Shaky Ground
Education Week - June 17, 2020 - 15
Education Week - June 17, 2020 - COVID-19 Forces the Question: Should the Youngest Learners Have Devices?
Education Week - June 17, 2020 - 17
Education Week - June 17, 2020 - I Need More From Schools Than Lip Service About Racism
Education Week - June 17, 2020 - School Closures Always Hurt. They Hurt Even More Now
Education Week - June 17, 2020 - 20
Education Week - June 17, 2020 - 21
Education Week - June 17, 2020 - 22
Education Week - June 17, 2020 - EdWeek Top School Jobs
Education Week - June 17, 2020 - For Teachers Who Understand Racism Is Real
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