Education Week - June 10, 2015 - (Page 22)

Parents See Testing's 'Distorting Impact' ed T By Rebecca Page Johnson NOT he success of the current education reform movement hinges on the compliance of millions of children who sit for annual accountability tests designed to rank their performance, and on the acquiescence of their schools and teachers to this vast public-policy experiment. At the start, parents seemed to be on board, or at least oblivious to the slow increase in testing that would be required under the federal No Child Left Behind Act. But as the frequency, duration, and failure rate of INSIDE OPT-OUT The Pushback Against Testing these exams grew with the implementation of federal programs such as Race to the Top and new teacherperformance reviews connected to multiple annual exams, the power of the parents and students to undo this policy turn became evident. In states such as New York, where test results are now linked to the job rating and security of local teachers, parents are beginning to speak out and act up, as they see the impact of the examination culture on their schools' depth of curriculum, climate for students, and instructional effectiveness. The resistance to state-mandated tests has reached a breaking point in many districts. In my research on this phenomenon, I am analyzing online parental discussion groups and public commentary on the growing movement in New York state, as well as nationally, to "opt out" of mandatory standardized testing. More and more, I am seeing disaffected parents who are both frustrated and alarmed by the outsize influence examination preparation and administration is having on their children's daily lives. Some of the deepest concern is being expressed by a movement of parents of special-needs children. They describe taking the state tests as a humiliating ordeal for their children-one they must experience over and over again. As one parent put it in a Facebook post, "We already got his below-basic designation last year, why do I need to send him in again for six more days of testing to get that news again?" In later posts, the mother describes the amazing enrichment activities and individualized instruction that her son's classroom teacher has designed for him. She laments that none of this teacher's efforts, nor her son's subsequent re-engagement in school that they have produced, would be reflected by the state exam used to measure Jonathan Bouw for Education Week PAGE 23 > What Are the Policy Implications of the Opt-Out Movement? S By Jessica K. Beaver & Lucas Westmaas ed NOT tandardized tests have been battered and bruised lately. In a 2014 Phi Delta Kappan/ Gallup poll, more than half of respondents nationwide indicated that standardized testing was "not helpful." Some states have stepped away from commitments to tests aligned with the Common Core State Standards, while others have experienced disruptions and delays in implementing new assessment systems. Even U.S. Secretary of Education Arne Duncan, long a proponent of test-based accountability, has lamented that standardized testing can be "a distraction from the work it is meant to support." Meanwhile, parents in many states are taking matters into their own hands, requesting that their children be exempt from state tests altogether-a process known as "opting out." In New York, for example, as many as 165,000 students opted out this year alone. National advocacy groups provide sample letters and state-by-state guides for parents interested in opting their children out of tests. In some cases, including in our own backyard of Philadelphia, pockets of educators have joined the conversation and actively encouraged parents to opt their children out. The Philadelphia school district also makes opt-out information available on its website. As researchers, we don't take a position on the opt-out movement specifically or standardized testing more broadly. But, as parents, educators, and others debate the role of standardized tests, it's important to assess whether test-based accountability holds up in the face of a growing number of opt-outs. In the most practical terms, how sensitive are school rating systems to the opt-out movement? And how many students must opt out before creating too much statistical noise for test-based systems to be useful? To inform these questions, our Philadelphia-based nonprofit group Research for Action ran a simulation using Pennsylvania data and the state's new school rating system, called School Performance Profiles, or spp. Our analyses showed that spp scores were indeed sensitive to optouts. For example, and not surprisingly, if high-achieving students opt out, schools' scores will fall. Moreover, it doesn't take too many opt-outs to affect a school's ratings. In cases where a school was hovering just above the threshold for "acceptable" performance-the Pennsylvania Department of Education has said it's an spp score of 70-it might take only a dozen or so high-achieving opt-outs to lower the school's rating. These school-performance-rating changes could have far-ranging effects- most notably for school employees, as the state transitions to a new evaluation system that ties building-level scores to ratings of teacher and principal effectiveness. 22 | EDUCATION WEEK | June 10, 2015 | www.edweek.org/go/commentary Although spp scores are specific to Pennsylvania, using standardized tests as the primary measure of school performance is the norm-and has been for years. The 13-year-old No Child Left Behind Act assesses schools exclusively on test scores, and even those states that received nclb waivers from federal officials were required to set up similar test-heavy systems. Opt-outs have special implications for Title I schools. Both the No Child Left Behind law and the waivers require that schools test 95 percent of students, and face sanctions if they do not. Colorado is the first state to specifically ask for leniency from the U.S. Department of Education for not meeting the 95 percent threshold because of the increasing numbers of student opt-outs. The department is currently considering its position, but it is likely that other states will make similar requests soon. Second, to comply with waiver provisions, Title I schools must meet a set of annual measurable objectives, or amos, for tested grades and subjects. In many states, these amos are based largely on standardized-test scores, which means that student opt-outs could result in failure to meet some of these objectives. Failing to meet amos carries with it certain state-level sanctions. In Pennsylvania, for example, the state department of education requires that the state's lowest-performing schools implement seven "turnaround principles," such as replacing, or receiving state approval of, a building principal; undergoing a curriculum audit; and school-schedule redesign. Schools that do not meet all four amos for three consecutive years are subject to even more intensive sanctions. How state education departments will address opt-outs in their evaluations of schools and districts is still an open question. Complicating the issue is the fact that there is little hard data available about which students are opting out. Gathering and disseminating such data would provide parents and other education stakeholders with valuable perspective on the impact of opt-outs, and should be a top priority of state education departments. It would also help educators and district administrators understand the degree of sensitivity inherent in those ratings. Finally, it is imperative that policymakers understand the potential impact of opt-outs as they continue to craft legislation-in particular, the reauthorization of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act, the law currently known as nclb- that could attach even more incentives and sanctions to school performance. n JESSICA K. BEAVER is a research associate at Research for Action, an independent, nonprofit education policy and research organization, in Philadelphia. She previously worked for a member of Congress on education policy and finance issues. LUCAS WESTMAAS is a research analyst at Research for Action and a former public high school math teacher. His work covers out-of-school time, test-based accountability, and school finance. http://www.edweek.org/go/commentary

Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of Education Week - June 10, 2015

Education Week - June 10, 2015
Cleveland Embraces Social- Emotional Learning
Challenge of Co-Teaching A Special Education Issue
As Federal Grants Taper Off, Two N.C. Districts Tally Impact
DIGITAL DIRECTIONS: N.Y. ‘Open’ Content Going Nationwide
School Choice Supercharged In Nev. Statute
Contents
News in Brief
Report Roundup
Debate Persists Around Kindergarten Reading Standards
New York Expanding Dual Language to Help Its English- Learners
Schools, Students Hit Hard by California’s Historic Drought
Blogs of the Week
Massachusetts School Transforms Renovation Into Teachable Moment
Magnet Schools Found to Boost Diversity—But Only a Bit
Survey: Students Need More Than Academic Prowess
Education Policy Issues In Arizona Crossfire
Congress Appears Poised to Tackle Higher Education Issues
SIG Money Gives Principal Tools For Turnaround
Federal Aid Fuels Multi-Tiered Instruction
Additional Entrants Join Presidential Race
High Court Rules in Online Threat, Religious Rights Cases
A Movement Gains Momentum
What Teachers Are Saying
Parents Have a Civil Right To Question Testing’s Goal
Parents See Testing’s ‘Distorting Impact’
What Are the Policy Implications of the Opt-Out Movement?
Letters
TopSchoolJobs Recruitment Marketplace
An Early Opt-Out

Education Week - June 10, 2015

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http://www.nxtbookMEDIA.com