Education Week - June 10, 2015 - (Page 10)

Magnet Schools Found to Boost Diversity-But Only a Bit By Sarah D. Sparks Changing a neighborhood school into a districtwide magnet can help educators to balance racial diversity, but it's a tough tightrope act, suggests a new longitudinal study. The research, looking at schools participating in the federal Magnet Schools Assistance Program, finds that such programs do boost diversity, but still struggle to achieve a full balance of students of different backgrounds and academic levels. Magnet schools were developed to counteract neighborhood racial and ethnic segregation by attracting a wide variety of students with specialized academic and arts programs. "When many of the magnet schools started in the 1970s, they really were pioneering forms of school choice," said Julian Betts, the lead study investigator and an economist at the University of California, San Diego. "In today's landscape, with all these different types of school choice operating, it's a more competitive environment ... but they still have a role." In some ways, magnet schools have been overshadowed by the rapid growth of charters, with 5,700 charters nationwide compared to 4,000 magnet schools. However, magnet programs still enroll more students, with 2.1 million enrolled in charters versus 2.6 million in magnets, federal data show. Study Details Mr. Betts and a team of researchers from the American Institutes for Research tracked the achievement and racial and socioeconomic diversity of 21 unnamed neighborhood schools for two years before and four years after each converted to a magnet program using federal grants awarded in 2004 and 2007. The sample included 17 so-called "traditional" magnet schools, those converted from neighborhood schools with high proportions of poor or minority students, which performed below their district average before being changed, and four "destination" magnets, former neighborhood schools with higher concentrations of white and wealthier students who performed better than the district average. Those two broad categories encompassed a wide variety of curriculum and teaching themes, including visual and performing arts, International Baccalaureate programs, and experiential learning models. None of the programs studied required testbased admission. All served their whole school, rather than being selfcontained. Converting a lower-performing, high-minority school into a magnet program significantly increased the percentage of students attending from outside the neighborhood-from 21 percent to 26 percent-but, on the surface, it did not change the share of minority students or of those in poverty at the school. However, other district schools saw an increase in minority students during the same period, suggesting the magnets helped to close racial gaps at least somewhat. No similar gaps closed between poor and wealthier students. "In no situation do we see nonresident students just flooding into magnet schools," Mr. Betts said. "They come, but [the] majority are still resident students." Administrators who want to reduce racial or socioeconomic achievement gaps should consider establishing magnet programs in disadvantaged neighborhoods, Mr. Betts said: "The number of lower-income and minority students participating in the new curriculum is bound to be higher in the traditional form of magnet school than in the destination [magnets]." Magnets converted from schools in wealthier neighborhoods saw more students from low-income backgrounds, but not changes in racial diversity. Sami T. Kitmitto, a coauthor and a principal researcher with the air, said there was no evi- Massachusetts School Transforms Renovation Into Teachable Moment Rather than allow a large-scale construction project to derail student learning, administrators and teachers at a private school in Manchester, Mass., incorporated the building process into the curricula-a partnership that also led the renovations to finish two months early. Adding construction themes to the lesson plans of the Brookwood School, a pre-K through 8th grade institution, was part of a collaboration between the school and the project's Beverly, Mass.-based overseer, Windover Construction, according to Nancy Evans, head of Brookwood's lower school. "[The construction] team came into rooms all the time throughout the school year to talk about what they were doing, to demonstrate, to say 'come out and take a look,' " Ms. Evans said. "We got to see beams put into place, we got to see the scaffolding of the old building coming down." The project was part of a plan meant to improve Brookwood facilities that no longer supported the school's increasing student population and project-based learning programs. Construction included the building of a new atrium, dining facilities, and a wing of classrooms, as well as the demolition and reconstruction of some classrooms. The construction began in the summer of 2013, with expectations that Brookwood School photo By Jacob Bell Students from the private Brookwood School in Manchester, Mass., sign the final beam before it is installed in their school, marking the last phase of a school construction project that became part of the curriculum over the course of the academic year. remodeling would proceed into this school year. Because of the partnership, however, Windover was able to work during the school day instead of exclusively at night or over summer vacation-times that are usually more feasible for school construction projects. Though students' access to the construction site was strictly observational, Windover provided tours, cut portholes in walls, and left fences uncovered to support student learning. "It allowed the kids to learn from a theoretical standpoint in classrooms and see things happening ... in a 10 | EDUCATION WEEK | June 10, 2015 | www.edweek.org practical standpoint throughout the year," said Stuart Meurer, the vice president of Windover. "We knew if we made it part of their everyday life, that the distractions and destructions to their learning atmosphere would be minimized." 'Big Dig' in Class The access Windover provided to students and faculty allowed teachers in the lower school, which houses grades 3 and below, to apply building themes-from geometry to vivid sights and noises-into their math dence that the magnet conversion caused the changed student population, as other neighborhood schools saw similar rises in poverty. While prior research has shown academic improvements for students who transfer to magnet programs, Mr. Betts and his colleagues found no significant benefits for neighborhood students who attend magnet programs. At destination schools that started out performing above the district average, achievement did not improve even as district achievement rose. That may be because of the influx of lower-achieving students, the researchers suggested. "It's not that we're finding none of the magnet schools have an impact on achievement; it's that it's quite mixed," Mr. Betts said. Nine magnet schools saw significant improvements in math and language arts; six saw declines, and the rest had no difference. "Really, the next step here is to find out what is the magic elixir here for some of these schools," he said. Wake County's Experience The Wake County, N.C., district, which depends on a system of openapplication assignments to 40 magnet schools to integrate its schools without using race or poverty information on individual students, offers a recent case in point. An analysis this month and English lesson plans. "We let projects really come up organically," said Suzy Light, a 2nd grade teacher at Brookwood who had her students use the sounds they heard on the construction site to write poetry. "With most of my colleagues, the general feeling was no apprehension at all because we were so excited about what we were going to get." Pre-K students performed a play in which the main character was the leader of the construction team, kindergarten and 1st grade students put on a musical version of "The Three Little Pigs" that emphasized building, and 3rd graders wrote weekly "Big Dig" reports based on interviews they had with the head of construction. Brookwood also intertwined learning and construction in the upper school with its choice of "Dreaming Up," a book that compares the buildings and creations that children make during playtime to world-renowned architecture, for the school's annual "One School, One Book" project. "We, right from the very beginning, honored the playfulness of children's building, and then we could juxtapose that with the building taking place all around us," Ms. Evans said. Partnerships between building organizations and schools, like the one that developed between Brookwood and Windover, are primarily due to both sides' willingness to step out of their comfort zones, according to Mike Glavin, the director of workforce policy and programs at Associated Builders and Contractors, Inc., a national trade association in Washington. "Often times it's like two ships passing in the night, where educators and school administrators have their by the local newspaper News & Observer found magnets with higher proportions of low-income students had fewer applications than those with wealthier students. Among the schools that drew fewer students was Brentwood Magnet Elementary School of Engineering, ranked second among magnet schools in the nation by the professional group Magnet Schools of America. Brentwood was converted from a low-performing-neighborhood school bordering Raleigh's urban ring. "I think it's difficult when families come to visit a school, they want to see other students who look like their child, because they don't want their child to be the 'only one,' whatever that only one is," said Tamani Powell, the director of marketing for the office of magnet programs in Wake County, N.C., who was not associated with the study. "Some of [the magnets] struggle because they do a very good job but their [student population] still looks one way. We really have to get a critical mass" of students from different backgrounds. Scan this tag with your smartphone for a link to "What Happens When Schools Become Magnet Schools?" www.edweek.org/links The INSIDE SCHOOL RESEARCH blog tracks news and trends on this issue. www.edweek.org/go/insideschoolresearch own lane that they're focused in on- educating students and keeping them safe-and contractors have their own lane that they operate in, which is getting projects completed on time, on budget, and safely," Mr. Glavin said. Larger Picture The need for greater school-contractor collaboration may become more pressing, however, as research has projected an increase in the amount of school construction needed in the near future. A 2014 report from the National Center for Education Statistics and the U.S. Department of Education, for example, found that, in a survey of roughly 1,600 U.S. schools between 2012 and 2013, 53 percent needed to spend money on repairs, renovations, and modernizations to have facilities meet the minimum requirements for normal school performance. Additionally, developing relationships with schools has come to be of special interest to contractors seeking to combat a major roadblock for their industry: construction's bad image. "Being able to expose students at any age to the realities of the construction industry-those being that it's extremely safe, that it's not as dirty as they necessarily think, that there is a great deal of math and critical thinking skills involved-it's something we have contractors all over the country trying to crack," Mr. Glavin said. Coverage of more and better learning time is supported by a grant from the Ford Foundation at www.fordfoundation. org. Education Week retains sole editorial control over the content of this coverage. http://www.edweek.org/links http://www.edweek.org/go/insideschoolresearch http://www.fordfoundation.org http://www.fordfoundation.org http://www.edweek.org

Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of Education Week - June 10, 2015

Education Week - June 10, 2015
Cleveland Embraces Social- Emotional Learning
Challenge of Co-Teaching A Special Education Issue
As Federal Grants Taper Off, Two N.C. Districts Tally Impact
DIGITAL DIRECTIONS: N.Y. ‘Open’ Content Going Nationwide
School Choice Supercharged In Nev. Statute
Contents
News in Brief
Report Roundup
Debate Persists Around Kindergarten Reading Standards
New York Expanding Dual Language to Help Its English- Learners
Schools, Students Hit Hard by California’s Historic Drought
Blogs of the Week
Massachusetts School Transforms Renovation Into Teachable Moment
Magnet Schools Found to Boost Diversity—But Only a Bit
Survey: Students Need More Than Academic Prowess
Education Policy Issues In Arizona Crossfire
Congress Appears Poised to Tackle Higher Education Issues
SIG Money Gives Principal Tools For Turnaround
Federal Aid Fuels Multi-Tiered Instruction
Additional Entrants Join Presidential Race
High Court Rules in Online Threat, Religious Rights Cases
A Movement Gains Momentum
What Teachers Are Saying
Parents Have a Civil Right To Question Testing’s Goal
Parents See Testing’s ‘Distorting Impact’
What Are the Policy Implications of the Opt-Out Movement?
Letters
TopSchoolJobs Recruitment Marketplace
An Early Opt-Out

Education Week - June 10, 2015

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