Education Week - June 3, 2015 - (Page 26)

COMMENTARY Necessary Lessons Schools' Critical Role in Reducing Family Violence By Francesca Sternfeld W D o we need a Flexner Report for American colleges of education? Perhaps, but only if we appreciate the true history of the original Flexner Report's role in transforming medical education in this country. The standard story of Abraham Flexner and his famous report goes something like this. In 1908, the Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching and the Council of Medical Education, a division of the American Medical Association, jointly commissioned Flexner to study and report on the state of North American medical schools. Flexner, who had no medical training, spent the next two years visiting and evaluating 155 separate institutions. His efforts culminated in his publishing a scathing report in 1910 that recommended a majority of medical schools be closed immediately. According to the standard story, an outraged public agreed with Flexner, and the council and various policymakers responded by taking swift action to shut down the fly-by-night programs churning out degrees for dangerous doctors. Within two decades, the number of medical colleges would be reduced by more than 50 percent, and our nation was finally on its way to developing the finest medical education system in the world. " At present, there is no collective vision, agreed upon by the leaders of colleges of education, as to the proper approach to preparing teachers." ho teaches children about human relationships? The answer is everyone they have contact with, be they young or old, male or female, loving or cruel. Children learn about relationships through social osmosis. They see the patterns around them and internalize those behaviors as the blueprints for what to expect from their own lives. If it is our sincere goal to reduce the sheer magnitude of family violence in America, we have to begin with the environment we have already entrusted with the responsibility of shaping children's lives outside the home. We have to start with schools. At the end of every school day, millions of American children return to violent households. To make life endurable, they integrate that violence into their understanding of reality. They learn that both carrying out violence and suffering it are part of life. Without sufficient models of an alternative, they have no choice but to cope in whatever ways they discover on their own. While some children may in fact have healthy coping mechanisms, too many will withdraw into their pain or act out against others. Whenever one child is wounded, he or she brings that anguish into the classroom, regardless of how conscious of that his classmates and teachers are. Domestic violence is only beginning to emerge from the cloud of taboo that surrounds it in our culture. Although it is a stubbornly entrenched feature of our society, with one in three women and one in four men experiencing violence by an intimate partner in their lifetimes, open discussion is rare. From time to time, the topic bursts into headlines with the scandal of a public figure, but all too soon it fades from view. The national discourse moves on. For children who live in a violent home, however, the horror doesn't fade. It is a daily reality, with daily costs. Exposure to family violence affects children's cognitive, social, emotional, and academic development. It hurts their ability to have trust in the world and robs them of the notion that adulthood is a desirable state to reach. To avoid this trajectory, we need caring adults in the school environment to take the lead on two fronts. First, children already exposed to family violence need to be equipped with the language and encouragement to name and receive support for what's going on. Second, all children need to hear content from teachers that promotes the self-worth, respect for others, and knowledge of the psychological roots of violent behavior that can prevent them from becoming either abusers or victims. In the last generation, social-science research has Can Teacher-Educators Learn From Medical-School Reform? By Benjamin Riley This story is a myth. Like many myths, it contains elements of truth, but the facts this story leaves out are just as important-perhaps more important-to understanding the potential relevance of the Flexner Report to transforming our educator-preparation system today. First, some data: It is true that in the years following the Flexner Report, many medical schools closed down, such that by 1928, only 76 were left. Yet what this leaves out is that schools were rapidly closing in the years prior to the report-approximately 40 schools closed between 1906 and 1910-and many others were already in poor fiscal health and on the verge of closure. While the Flexner Report may have hastened the demise of some of these schools (in particular, dubious for-profit proprietary schools), pressures from multiple sources, including state boards of health, began the trend toward consolidation, which was well under way before its publication. Second, the Flexner Report mythology omits the salient fact that by 1910, according to Kenneth Ludmerer, a leading historian of U.S. medical education, "a consensus had emerged among medical educators regarding the proper approach to teaching medicine." This consensus placed scientific competence at its center and in service of a remarkably progressive vision: Future doctors were to be trained in the sciences (physics, chemistry, and biology) and then approach issues of medical practice with a scientific mind-set-inquire, observe, and infer. The leaders of reputable medical schools affiliated with major research universities not only agreed with this vision, they were already orienting medical training around this blend of scientific competence and progressive problem-solving. Finally, and somewhat ironically, the dominant Flexner Report narrative masks the role that Abraham Flexner himself soon after played in catalyzing massive philanthropic support to medical schools that adopted this scientific-progressive vision. In 1912, Flexner joined the Rockefeller-funded General Education Board and spent the next 25 years helping raise more than $500 million-around $6 billion in today's dollars-to support the scientific, research-oriented medical schools endorsed in his report. Put another way, as much as Flexner's report memorialized what was bad in medical education, both the report and his subsequent actions directed tremendous resources to build and strengthen the good. This context suggests that something important is missing at the moment from our national discussion on how to improve teacher preparation. Unlike the situation in 1910, at present there is no collective vision, agreed upon by the leaders of colleges of education, as to the proper approach to preparing teachers, although the recently formed organization Deans for Impact, which I head, is working toward this goal. Perhaps because 26 | EDUCATION WEEK | June 3, 2015 | www.edweek.org/go/commentary Getty http://www.edweek.org/go/commentary

Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of Education Week - June 3, 2015

Education Week - June 3, 2015
New S.C. Standards Ease Political Pushback
Summer-Job Demand Outstrips Opportunities
Districts Use Student Insights To Guide Policy, Practice
Charters Look Anew At Teacher Retention
With Common Core, Algebra Course Undergoes a Face-Lift
Contents
News in Brief
Report Roundup
PARCC Shortens Testing Time, Shifts to Later in the School Year
Ties Deepening Between Schools, After-School Providers
Parent Engagement on Rise As Priority for Schools, Districts
Charter Sector Challenged by Caliber of School Boards
DIGITAL DIRECTIONS: The E-Rate Overhaul in 4 Easy Charts
Studies Probe How Students Can Apply Math More Widely
NAEP to Gather Data on Grit, Mindset
Blogs of the Week
Teacher-Retention Data For Charters Still Murky
Stakes High for Bureau of Indian Education’s Overhaul
California Seeks Waiver on Use of Federal Title I Tutoring Money
Blogs of the Week
FRANCESCA STERNFELD: Necessary Lessons, Schools’ Critical Role in Reducing Family Violence
BENJAMIN RILEY: Can Teacher-Educators Learn From Medical-School Reform?
RANDI WEINGARTEN: States Should Ditch ‘Cut Scores’ on New Tests
Letters
TopSchoolJobs Recruitment Marketplace
TERRY B. GRIER: Creating a College-Bound Culture in an Urban School District

Education Week - June 3, 2015

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