Education Week - May 30, 2018 - 6

Number of Librarians Plummets in Schools, Data Find
Yet student numbers
continue to rise

2. Chicago public schools:

353

By Sarah D. Sparks
& Alex Harwin

NY
1. New York City public schools:

391
IL
CA

4. Los Angeles
Unified school
district:

TOP 5 DISTRICTS
LOSING LIBRARIANS
OVER PAST DECADE

144

3. Miami-Dade
County public
schools:

FL

Among districts nationwide,
Chicago, Los Angeles, New York
City, Miami-Dade County, Fla.,
and Hawaii experienced some
of the largest declines in the
numbers of school librarians
and media specialists between
the 2005-06 school year and
2015-16.

206
HI 5. Hawaii
department
of education:

132
See an interactive map showing the decline in all the states.
www.edweek.org/go/librarian-decline

54,246

54,350

54,205

54,349

54,145

54,057

54,444

54,386

53,805
52,545

TRACKING THE NUMBERS OF SCHOOL
LIBRARIANS OVER 15 YEARS

50,300
48,402

44,624

2014-15

2013-14

2012-13

2011-12

2010-11

2009-10

45,106

School
librarians
media
specialists
43,368
2015-16

46,685

2008-09

2007-08

2006-07

2005-06

2004-05

2003-04

2002-03

2001-02

Nationwide, the number of school librarians and media
specialists employed by schools dropped from just over 54,000
in 2000-01 to less than 44,000 in the 2015-16 academic year.
Many districts lost librarians even as student populations
grew by 7 percent nationwide.

2000-01

American schools-particularly
those serving black and Latino students-have seen a precipitous drop
in the number of school librarians
since the Great Recession.
The nation's public school districts
have lost 20 percent of their librarians and media specialists since
2000, from more than 55,000 to
fewer than 45,000 in 2015, according to an Education Week Research
Center analysis of federal data. Many
districts lost librarians even as student populations grew by 7 percent
nationwide. For example, in Denver
public schools, student enrollment increased by 25 percent since 2005, but
the number of librarians decreased
by 60 percent.
The most dramatic drop came
after the 2008 recession, and the federal data suggest that cash-strapped
districts may have shifted from
library services to other support
staff. As school librarian ranks
dropped, schools nationwide saw an
11 percent increase in the number of
counselors, a 19 percent increase in
instructional aides, and a 28 percent
increase in school administrators.
"When we've talked to districts that
have chosen to put resources elsewhere, we really do see more than one
who have then come back and wanted
to reinstate [the librarian]," said Steven Yates, the president of the American Association of School Librarians.
"Not only do you lose the person curating the resources for informational
and pleasure reading, but you lose the
person who can work with the students on the ethical side-how do you
cite? How do you determine a credible
source of information?"
And while many districts have invested in technology upgrades such
as a laptop or device for every student
and media centers, "Sometimes administrators think if you can put in
computers [in a media center], that
would take the need away for a qualified librarian, but we've found that's
not what happens," Yates said. "In a
1-to-1, you end up needing more support from qualified professionals."
Chicago public schools have gone
from more than 450 librarians staffing libraries and media centers at
more than 600 schools to fewer than
150 in a four-year period, according to
South Side high school librarian Sara
Sayigh, whose positions at the historic
DuSable High School and later the
Bronzeville Scholastic Institute and
Daniel Hale Williams Prep School of
Medicine have been cut four times in
the last 14 years.
"It's been awful," she said. "Principals have had to figure out how
to keep a full [teaching] staff when
the pot kept decreasing, so any person who wasn't in the classroom
every minute of the day-particularly in high school-could be cut,"
Sayigh added. "The librarians, we
have master's degrees and very
often we were among the first peo-

SOURCE: Education Week Research Center analysis of federal Common Core of Data, 2018

ple who were dropped."
While Sayigh was repeatedly reinstated after budget changes and parent and student protests, she left for
good in September, the last time her
position was eliminated.

Minority Districts Hit Hardest
The federal data show districts
serving students of color have been
the hardest hit. Districts which have
not lost a librarian since 2005 are
75 percent white, while the 20 districts that have lost the most librarians-three-quarters of their library
staffs or more in that time-had on
average 78 percent minority student
populations.
In Los Angeles Unified, which has
lost nearly half of its school librarians in the last decade, library advocates planned to protest with teacher

6 | EDUCATION WEEK | May 30, 2018 | www.edweek.org

groups at a May 24 rally.
"Each year we seem to be losing a
few more libraries," said John Hamrick, a teacher-librarian at North Hollywood High School in Los Angeles,
adding that less-affluent neighborhoods have borne the brunt of the
purge. "It is ironic that in schools that
are most challenged with low reading scores, schools that struggle with
information technology, teacher-librarians who have expertise in these
areas are being displaced."
The research center used information from the federal Common Core
of Data to examine how the number
of librarians in the nation's public
schools has changed over time. At
the state level, it calculated the percentage change in school librarians
between the 2000-01 and 2015-16
school years. For districts, it calculated the percentage change from

2005-06 to 2015-16, the most recent
year available.
Separate analyses by National
Education Association researchers
Andy Coons and Stacey Pelika in
2016 and by Debra Kachel of Antioch University Seattle and Keith
Curry Lance of the RSL Research
Group earlier this year likewise
have found gaps in school library
staffing over time.
The evidence is building that
the loss of school librarians could
put schools at a disadvantage
academically.
For example, in a study of 4th
grade reading performance on the
National Assessment of Educational
Progress two studies of national and
Colorado-specific data suggested that
losing a school librarian was associated with lower 4th grade reading
scores while gaining one was as-

sociated with higher scores. Lance's
and Kachel's meta-analysis of
34 statewide studies in Phi Delta
Kappan also suggests that schools
with high-quality library programs
had higher reading test scores and,
for high schools, graduation rates.
Sayigh argued that while academic
performance is important, there has
been less research on the social and
emotional supports that librarians
can provide; she recalled running
popular book clubs for students and
teachers, but the library also provided a safe, watched area for students escaping bullying.
"I don't think people even know
how much they lose when they lose
their librarian," she said. "They may
lose the only person who keeps up
with what the students are reading,
and who acts as an unbiased advocate for the students."


http://www.edweek.org/go/librarian-decline http://www.edweek.org

Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of Education Week - May 30, 2018

Education Week - May 30, 2018
Contents
News in Brief
Report Roundup
Number of Librarians Plummets in Schools, Data Find
A Growing Vision Problem Is Hidden in Plain Sight
Another School in Anguish
The 10 Lives Lost>
Santa Fe Shooting Sparks Debate on School Design
Heated Comments Highlight Divisions in Wake of School Shooting
Survey of K-3 Teachers Captures Affinity With Pre-K Colleagues
Schools See New Dilemma in Teens Who Cyberbully Themselves
DIGITAL DIRECTIONS: Gamers Are the New School Athletes: The Rise of Esports
Trump Panel Slammed on Pace Of School Safety Work
DeVos Deflects Criticism At Capitol Hill Hearing
State Restrictions on School Choice Earn Ed. Sec.’s Ire
Jeannine Diddle Uzzi: Math Is a Language. Let’s Teach It That Way
Natalia Kucirkova: Is Silicon Valley Standardizing Learning?
Carolyn R. Hodges & Olga M. Welch: The Face of Leadership
Letters
TopSchoolJobs Recruitment Marketplace
Michael J. Petrilli: A Fair and Effective Approach to School Discipline
Education Week - May 30, 2018 - Education Week - May 30, 2018
Education Week - May 30, 2018 - 2
Education Week - May 30, 2018 - Contents
Education Week - May 30, 2018 - News in Brief
Education Week - May 30, 2018 - Report Roundup
Education Week - May 30, 2018 - Number of Librarians Plummets in Schools, Data Find
Education Week - May 30, 2018 - 7
Education Week - May 30, 2018 - A Growing Vision Problem Is Hidden in Plain Sight
Education Week - May 30, 2018 - 9
Education Week - May 30, 2018 - Another School in Anguish
Education Week - May 30, 2018 - The 10 Lives Lost>
Education Week - May 30, 2018 - 12
Education Week - May 30, 2018 - Santa Fe Shooting Sparks Debate on School Design
Education Week - May 30, 2018 - Heated Comments Highlight Divisions in Wake of School Shooting
Education Week - May 30, 2018 - Survey of K-3 Teachers Captures Affinity With Pre-K Colleagues
Education Week - May 30, 2018 - 16
Education Week - May 30, 2018 - 17
Education Week - May 30, 2018 - Schools See New Dilemma in Teens Who Cyberbully Themselves
Education Week - May 30, 2018 - DIGITAL DIRECTIONS: Gamers Are the New School Athletes: The Rise of Esports
Education Week - May 30, 2018 - DeVos Deflects Criticism At Capitol Hill Hearing
Education Week - May 30, 2018 - State Restrictions on School Choice Earn Ed. Sec.’s Ire
Education Week - May 30, 2018 - Natalia Kucirkova: Is Silicon Valley Standardizing Learning?
Education Week - May 30, 2018 - Carolyn R. Hodges & Olga M. Welch: The Face of Leadership
Education Week - May 30, 2018 - Letters
Education Week - May 30, 2018 - 25
Education Week - May 30, 2018 - TopSchoolJobs Recruitment Marketplace
Education Week - May 30, 2018 - 27
Education Week - May 30, 2018 - Michael J. Petrilli: A Fair and Effective Approach to School Discipline
Education Week - May 30, 2018 - CW1
Education Week - May 30, 2018 - CW2
Education Week - May 30, 2018 - CW3
Education Week - May 30, 2018 - CW4
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