Education Week - May 24, 2017 - 17

more in line with current research in science education."
California has taken its own tack, asking the U.S.
Department of Education for permission to skip its
yearly testing and instead only give pilot NGSS tests
for 2017 and 2018. That means students wouldn't get
scores for those two years.
"There was no desire on any front to continue with
the old standards and the old test," said Keric Ashley,
the deputy superintendent for the California education
department. And "to slap together a test to meet the
requirements didn't seem to be the right approach."
The department refused the state's request last December. But California, somewhat boldly, went ahead
anyway with its pilot tests this spring. And now, officials say, the federal government is reconsidering.
"We are in conversations about a one-year
waiver," said Ashley. "Based on those conversations,
we're hopeful it will be approved."

Promise of NGSS Tests
The Next Generation Science Standards outline what K-12 students need to know about physical, life, and earth and space sciences, yet in a more
complicated format than previous state standards.
The standards were developed by 26 state partners in
collaboration with science, science education, higher
education, and business and industry groups.
Each standard has a performance expectation,
which lays out what students should be able to do. For
instance, they may need to make a model, conduct an
investigation, or interpret data. Standards also have
three other "dimensions": disciplinary core ideas, science and engineering practices, and crosscutting concepts. These describe the facts students need to know,
what they should do to act like a scientist or engineer,
and how the facts connect to other fields of science.
Previous standards tended to present the facts and
aspects of scientific reasoning, such as what makes
for a good experiment, explained Pellegrino, who is
working on a National Science Foundation-funded
project to create performance tasks for classrooms
using the NGSS. And the associated tests tended to
assess students on the facts and inquiry separately.
The point of the NGSS, alternatively, is to fully integrate knowing and doing in the classroom.
"This now is a much deeper challenge in terms of
what we're expecting kids to show us," Pellegrino said.
Large-scale tests aligned to the new standards
should have sets of interrelated questions-known
as clusters-that refer to a single "stimulus," such as
a graph, an image, or an animation of an experiment,
according to a 2015 report by the Science Assessment
Item Collaborative, convened by the Council of Chief
State School Officers in partnership with WestEd,
which develops assessments.
The tests should ideally be given online to allow for
interactivity-so a student can, for instance, simulate
collecting data or running an experiment. And they

should be able to measure students' skills on a continuum of learning.
The tests being created so far do have more bells
and whistles than previous ones, but students won't
mistake them for video games or authentic lab work.
In many cases, the test-delivery platforms will
look similar to those being used for math and reading
tests aligned with the Common Core State Standards.
In a sample middle school item from the American Institutes for Research, one of several vendors
working with states to produce NGSS-aligned tests,
students see an animation of Jupiter's moons orbiting
the planet.
They're given a tool to measure distance within
the animation and shown data on each of the moons
by name. Then they're asked a series of questions
that allow them to determine which moon is which.
"You're asking kids to not just exhibit knowledge
but to apply and use that knowledge," said Jon Cohen,
the president of AIR assessment. "We're able to do all
kinds of cool stuff."

"THIS NOW IS A
MUCH DEEPER
CHALLENGE
IN TERMS OF WHAT
WE'RE EXPECTING
KIDS TO SHOW US."
James Pellegrino

Co-director
Learning Sciences Research Institute

Illinois Out in Front, Amid Scrutiny
Given that NGSS test questions are labor-intensive
to create, some states plan to share items with one
another.
Illinois, which did not administer science tests in
2015 and received a warning from the federal government for being out of compliance, needed to craft
a test quickly last year. The state made a deal with
the District of Columbia, which already had a bank
of items, to be able to use those test questions and
return the favor down the road.
The state produced approximately hour-long tests
for 5th and 8th grades and for biology classes. The tests
each had about 20 items and included multiple choice
and constructed response, or short-answer, questions.
The state also had to set up a variety of platforms for managing and delivering the test, Daniel L.
Brown, the division supervisor for assessment for the
Illinois state board of education, explained.
"Ultimately, in my position, I'd love to have two
years to be able to build this system. It's not ideal to
have to do it in six months because you introduce all
sorts of risk," he said. "We tried to satisfy a requirement
and at the same time build something for the future."
Some experts see Illinois as a cautionary tale.
"They are trying to make use of assessments that
were hastily assembled to try to align with the Next
Generation Science Standards for which the evidence
is lacking about how valid they are," said Pellegrino.
"They had no money and no time. ... The Illinois case
illustrates the exact problem all states are going to
have if they try to do this too quickly."
Brown said the first year of testing had some technology problems, but he thinks the test lined up with
the three-dimensional nature of the standards. And
this year, test administration has gone much more

Student Testing: What's Next / www.edweek.org/go/assessment

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17


http://www.edweek.org/go/assessment

Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of Education Week - May 24, 2017

Education Week - May 24, 2017
Contents
Getting a Read on Student Assessment
Assessment: A Snapshot of a Field In Motion
What Happens When Students Are The Test Designers?
Teaching Students To De-Stress Over Tests
In Science, Next-Wave Tests Slowly Take Shape
Testing the ‘Career’ Half Of ‘College and Career’
Hey, Sailor, What Career Matches Your Interests?
In the College-Testing Game, ACT Outscores SAT-for Now
More Testing on the Horizon for Nation´s ELL Students
Formative Assessments Go Digital
Education Week - May 24, 2017 - Education Week - May 24, 2017
Education Week - May 24, 2017 - C2
Education Week - May 24, 2017 - Contents
Education Week - May 24, 2017 - 2
Education Week - May 24, 2017 - Getting a Read on Student Assessment
Education Week - May 24, 2017 - 4
Education Week - May 24, 2017 - Assessment: A Snapshot of a Field In Motion
Education Week - May 24, 2017 - 6
Education Week - May 24, 2017 - What Happens When Students Are The Test Designers?
Education Week - May 24, 2017 - 8
Education Week - May 24, 2017 - 9
Education Week - May 24, 2017 - 10
Education Week - May 24, 2017 - Teaching Students To De-Stress Over Tests
Education Week - May 24, 2017 - 12
Education Week - May 24, 2017 - 13
Education Week - May 24, 2017 - 14
Education Week - May 24, 2017 - In Science, Next-Wave Tests Slowly Take Shape
Education Week - May 24, 2017 - 16
Education Week - May 24, 2017 - 17
Education Week - May 24, 2017 - 18
Education Week - May 24, 2017 - Testing the ‘Career’ Half Of ‘College and Career’
Education Week - May 24, 2017 - 20
Education Week - May 24, 2017 - Hey, Sailor, What Career Matches Your Interests?
Education Week - May 24, 2017 - In the College-Testing Game, ACT Outscores SAT-for Now
Education Week - May 24, 2017 - 23
Education Week - May 24, 2017 - 24
Education Week - May 24, 2017 - More Testing on the Horizon for Nation´s ELL Students
Education Week - May 24, 2017 - 26
Education Week - May 24, 2017 - 27
Education Week - May 24, 2017 - Formative Assessments Go Digital
Education Week - May 24, 2017 - 29
Education Week - May 24, 2017 - 30
Education Week - May 24, 2017 - 31
Education Week - May 24, 2017 - 32
Education Week - May 24, 2017 - C3
Education Week - May 24, 2017 - C4
Education Week - May 24, 2017 - CW1
Education Week - May 24, 2017 - CW2
Education Week - May 24, 2017 - CW3
Education Week - May 24, 2017 - CW4
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