Education Week - May 20, 2015 - 7

Long-Term Gains Seen for Kids Who Move Out of Poverty
Researchers cite role
of school leniency
By Liana Heitin
The younger children are when
they move out of impoverished
neighborhoods, the better their
long-term outcomes are, including
college-attendance rates and later
salary levels, according to two studies
released this month.
Those results may derive in part
from the likelihood that children in
low-poverty neighborhoods are more
liable to be given second chances in
any number of situations, said a researcher
who worked on one of the
studies.
"There are less permanent consequences
for youthful indiscretion in
better neighborhoods and modestly
better schools," said Lawrence Katz,
an economics professor at Harvard
University and co-author of a new
analysis of the Moving to Opportunity
program, a federal anti-poverty
initiative from the mid-1990s
in which families were randomly
selected for vouchers to move to
higher-income neighborhoods.
The relative leniency of schools
and authorities in lower-poverty
areas may have a positive effect on
educational outcomes even if the
academic programs don't differ significantly,
researchers suggested.
Previous analyses of the Moving
to Opportunity program were unencouraging.
Moving from a high-poverty
to lower-poverty neighborhood,
they found, had no positive effects
on parents' earnings or on students'
academic achievement.
But the new analysis by Harvard
University researchers Raj Chetty,
Nathaniel Hendren, and Mr. Katz
indicates that the community where
children live has a significant impact
over time-and the longer they
live in low-poverty neighborhoods,
the more opportunities they'll have
as adults.
Improved Outcomes
The researchers linked the data
from the Moving to Opportunity
Print Ad
experiment-which was conducted
from 1994 to 1998 and included
about 4,600 families from Baltimore,
Boston, Chicago, Los Angeles,
and New York-to federal incometax
records. They found that children
who moved to low-poverty
neighborhoods before age 13 earned
an annual income as adults that
was $3,477, or 31 percent, higher
than their counterparts who stayed
in high-poverty neighborhoods.
They were also more likely to
attend college and attend a better
college, and less likely to live in a
low-income neighborhood as adults
as well. The women were also less
likely to be single parents.
"This overturns the conventional
wisdom on the effects of the Moving
to Opportunity study," said
Adam Gamoran, the president of
the William T. Grant Foundation,
which funds research on how inequalities
affect U.S. children,
though it was not involved in the
new studies. "It's leading us to believe
that moving to a new neighborhood
does have effects on longer-term
outcomes."
However, the effects differed for
children who moved later in their
childhoods, between ages 13 and
18. Moving to a low-poverty neighborhood
at that age had a slightly
negative-though not statistically
significant-impact on salary and
other outcomes. The report's authors
interpret that as evidence of a "disruption
effect" on social networks
that adversely affects older children.
A second and much larger study
released by Mr. Chetty and Mr. Hendren
this month supports the finding
that neighborhoods have causal
effects on social mobility.
The researchers looked at tax
records of more than 5 million individuals
who, as children, moved
with their families to new counties
between 1996 and 2012. Using a
quasi-experimental design, they
compared siblings from the same
families, and found that each year
of exposure to a "better" neighborhood
improved children's long-term
outcomes.
They were even able to estimate
the effect that spending a year of
childhood in a particular county has
on a person's later salary.
While neither of the new studies
specifically focus on the dynamics of
K-12 education, researchers agree
that the schools children attend
play a significant role in determining
their long-term outcomes.
Notably, though, that role may not
be the seemingly obvious one of improving
student learning.
'Second Chances'
A 2006 analysis of Moving to Opportunity
found that the children
who moved out of high-poverty
neighborhoods were doing no better
on reading and math tests than
their peers who did not move. They
also fared no better as indicated by
behavior, school problems, or school
engagement.
And though the neighborhoods
that families moved to were substantially
less impoverished than
their previous neighborhoods, the
schools their children attended were
only modestly different from their
previous schools as measured by
poverty rates and test scores.
Yet the new analysis shows that
students who relocated went to college
at higher rates and to higherquality
colleges.
"Now we're left with a different
paradox," said the Grant Foundation's
Mr. Gamoran. "Why are longterm
outcomes better if schools
didn't differ?"
Mr. Katz believes it may be because
the consequences for engaging
in risky and even criminal behaviors
tend to be less harsh in lower-poverty
areas.
"A lot of the benefit of better
neighborhoods and moderately better
schools is that they aren't so
overwhelmed by everyone having
problems," he said. "You can do some
mischievous things and not be suspended
or thrown out of school. ... A
lot of this looks like second chances."
James Rosenbaum, a sociology
professor at Northwestern University
in Evanston, Ill., who worked on
a Chicago housing study known as
the Gautreaux program-the precursor
to Moving to Opportunity-
finds that explanation plausible.
Along with schools, "police really
do have discretion," Mr. Rosenbaum
said. "When they face young people
[in better neighborhoods] who they
believe have good families, they're
lenient. They'll trust families to
straighten out the kids."
There may also be a peer effect in
play, said Mr. Gamoran.
"There are neighborhoods where
it's assumed everyone goes to college,
and neighborhoods where it's
rare people go to college," he said. "It
seems likely these kinds of neighborhood
norms would affect whether
students go to college."
Secrets for 1-to-1 Success:
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the steps it took Lakewood High
School to successfully roll out
their 1-to-1 initiative from concept
to vision, device evaluation,
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2 to 3 p.m. ET
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in Education
EDUCATION WEEK | May 20, 2015 | www.edweek.org | 7
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Education Week - May 20, 2015

Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of Education Week - May 20, 2015

Education Week - May 20, 2015
Gifted Programs Miss Disadvantaged Students
Army of Scorers Tackles Common-Core Tests
Groups Aim to Smooth Student-Police Relations
U.S. Senate Proposal Puts Spotlight On ‘Open Educational Resources’
Civil Rights Data Detail Increase In Complaints
Contents
News in Brief
Report Roundup
Accountability Measures for Traits Like ‘Grit’ Questioned
Long-Term Gains Seen for Kids Who Move Out of Poverty
Blogs of the Week
Selective Public Schools Struggle to Diversify Enrollments
Illinois Policymakers Scramble After Pension Law Struck Down
Student-Data Use a Key Issue In Debates Over Privacy Bills
Blogs of the Week
Why Not Practice What We Preached?
Education Has to Be a ‘Human Business’
Letters
TopSchoolJobs Recruitment Marketplace
Making the Right Commitment to Student-Data Privacy
Is the Public Ever Really Private?
Education Week - May 20, 2015 - Civil Rights Data Detail Increase In Complaints
Education Week - May 20, 2015 - 2
Education Week - May 20, 2015 - Contents
Education Week - May 20, 2015 - News in Brief
Education Week - May 20, 2015 - Report Roundup
Education Week - May 20, 2015 - Accountability Measures for Traits Like ‘Grit’ Questioned
Education Week - May 20, 2015 - Long-Term Gains Seen for Kids Who Move Out of Poverty
Education Week - May 20, 2015 - Blogs of the Week
Education Week - May 20, 2015 - 9
Education Week - May 20, 2015 - 10
Education Week - May 20, 2015 - 11
Education Week - May 20, 2015 - 12
Education Week - May 20, 2015 - 13
Education Week - May 20, 2015 - 14
Education Week - May 20, 2015 - 15
Education Week - May 20, 2015 - 16
Education Week - May 20, 2015 - Selective Public Schools Struggle to Diversify Enrollments
Education Week - May 20, 2015 - 18
Education Week - May 20, 2015 - Student-Data Use a Key Issue In Debates Over Privacy Bills
Education Week - May 20, 2015 - Blogs of the Week
Education Week - May 20, 2015 - 21
Education Week - May 20, 2015 - Why Not Practice What We Preached?
Education Week - May 20, 2015 - Education Has to Be a ‘Human Business’
Education Week - May 20, 2015 - Letters
Education Week - May 20, 2015 - 25
Education Week - May 20, 2015 - TopSchoolJobs Recruitment Marketplace
Education Week - May 20, 2015 - 27
Education Week - May 20, 2015 - Is the Public Ever Really Private?
Education Week - May 20, 2015 - CT1
Education Week - May 20, 2015 - CT2
Education Week - May 20, 2015 - CT3
Education Week - May 20, 2015 - CT4
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