Education Week - May 20, 2015 - 22

COMMENTARY
Why Not Practice What We Preached?
How America Rebuilt Japan's Education System-and Tore Apart Its Own
By Lawrence Baines
Y
"
The United
States, which
used to have
one of the
strongest
education
systems in
the world,
has reverted
to the
practices
of preWorld
War
II Imperial
Japan."
ear after year, students from
Japan are at the top of the charts
in international comparisons of
student achievement, particularly
in mathematics and science.
In addition to their high achievement,
Japanese students seem to
be compliant and cooperative in
school. According to a 2013 report of the Organization
for Economic Cooperation and Development, Japan
has "the best disciplinary climate among students in
all other OECd countries."
What is not as widely known is that, after the end
of World War II, the United States helped Japan create
a new K-12 education system. The Report of the
United States Education Mission to Japan, published
by the U.S. State Department in 1946, explicates the
flaws of Imperial Japan's system of education and
outlines a detailed plan for the future "based on the
recognition of the worth and dignity of the individual."
In the foreword to the book, Gen. Douglas MacArthur,
the commander of allied forces in the Pacific and
then directing the reconstruction of Japan, states that
the report is "a document of ideals high in the democratic
tradition." In particular, its American authors
excoriate the old Japanese regime for its mistaken beliefs
about education. The system the Japanese built,
they write, was conceptually flawed:
* It presumed "a fixed quantum of knowledge to be
absorbed, and tended to disregard differences of ability
and interest among students."
* It established that "the measure of efficiency was
the degree to which standardization and uniformity
was secured."
* And it "lessened the opportunities for teachers to
exercise their professional freedom."
What is most surprising about the 1946 Mission
Report is that the educational practices of Imperial
Japan, which the report's American authors characterized
as "malicious," are strikingly similar to recent
reforms enacted in the United States.
Breadth of Curriculum. According to the report,
the old Japanese educational system was overly reliant
on a fixed curriculum and failed to prepare
students for the real world. About the prevalence of
high-stakes testing, the report states: "A system of
education that is dominated by preparation for examinations
becomes formal and stereotyped; it makes
for conformity on the part of teachers and students. It
stifles freedom of inquiry and critical judgment."
Of course, the American educational system today
is predicated upon high-stakes exams that may have
little relevance to the real world. In his 2001 State
of the Union address, President George W. Bush
acknowledged that the aim of this new brand of
American education should revolve around test performance.
"They
talk about 'teaching to the test,'" Mr. Bush
said. "But let's put that logic to the test. If you test
a child on basic math and reading skills, and you're
'teaching to the test,' you're teaching math and reading.
And that's the whole idea."
Frequent testing, it turns out, is of negligible value,
though it consumes inordinate amounts of instructional
time, as ever more hours, days, and weeks are
devoted to "practice tests" and test-taking strategies.
Today in American classrooms, any lesson, discussion,
or event that does not directly correlate to a
test is viewed as problematic. Indeed, the solution for
continued low test-score performance has become the
threat of a state takeover, in which the fixed curriculum
becomes petrified-in the form of scripted lessons
and a doubling-down on test preparation.
22 | EDUCATION WEEK | May 20, 2015 | www.edweek.org/go/commentary
Standardization and Uniformity. Across the
United States, superintendents, school administrators,
and department chairs enthusiastically
announce that they have aligned the curriculum
so that they know precisely the material that every
teacher in every class will cover every day. These
school officials are enthusiastic because uniformity
is what gets rewarded under the current American
system. It does not matter that a particular
class might be teeming with kids who have IQs
above 130, or is crowded with children who emigrated
from Haiti last week. The curriculum must
be followed, regardless of the students who might
actually be sitting in the seats. When the curriculum
is standardized, the needs of students become
superfluous.
The 1946 Mission Report notes that a good curriculum
is not standardized, but "must start with
the interests of the pupils." No curriculum, it says,
is "valid under all circumstances, irrespective of the
environment and abilities of pupils."
Uniformity is a poor strategy for developing
human potential. Learning how to solve a quadratic
equation, run the steeplechase, sew a blouse, camp
in the wilderness, and understand literature have
inherent degrees of difficulty, and typically, students
are at different places on the road to mastery at different
points in time. To maximize efficiency and to
maintain student interest, the ideal starting point
for learning is where the student happens to be, not
where the curriculum guide commands.
According to the report, "Teaching methods emphasizing
memorization [and] conformity ... should
be modified to encourage independent thinking, the
development of personality, and the rights and responsibilities
of democratic citizenship."
Opportunities for Teachers. The most strongly
worded exhortations in the Mission Report involve
the role of Japanese teachers, who, during World
War II, were poorly paid and were ordered by the
government to extol national supremacy, to valorize
military service, and to encourage blind self-sacrifice.
"The effects of the old regime are manifest in
the teaching practices," chides the report. "Teachers
have been told exactly what to teach and how
to teach it."
Similarly, American teachers today have precious
little autonomy, perhaps less than at any other time
in history. Yet, to improve the quality of teachers in
future Japanese schools, the report implores that "to
do their best work, [teachers] must have freedom to
think, speak, and act. They must have security in
their positions, reasonable salaries, and adequate
retirement provisions."
The Japanese government eventually passed legislation
specifying that salaries for teachers be set
at the highest possible level. As a result, the salaries
for beginning engineers and beginning teachers in
Japan are about the same. Japanese teachers must
teach for a year under a mentor teacher, and continually
engage in professional development, which
is paid for by the government.
In most states in this country, teacher pay is low,
requirements for certification are widely varied, and
expectations for paid and facilitated professional development
are almost nil.
Unquestionably, Japan's post-World War II educational
experiment, based on democratic values,
has flourished. Today, Japan has one of the strongest
education systems in the world. On the other
hand, the United States, which used to have one of
the strongest education systems in the world, has
reverted to the practices of pre-World War II Imperial
Japan. Not only has America borrowed Imperial
Japan's discredited educational practices, but these
"malicious practices" have also become the cornerstone
for education reform in the 21st century.
American education could improve, at absolutely
no cost, if we took our own advice from 1946 and
rid ourselves of the autocratic, misanthropic, and
illogical policies of the past. A return to democratic
ideals would mean:
* Appreciating the differences among students;
* Teaching the child, not the curriculum; and
* Giving teachers the freedom to teach.
Japan changed its outdated system of education in
1946. Perhaps the United States can change its outdated
system in 2015. After years of repression and
regimentation, with disastrous results, it is time to
give American public education back to the people. n
LAWRENCE BAINES is the associate dean for research at the
University of Oklahoma, in Norman. His latest books are ProjectBased
Writing in Science (Sense Publishers, 2014) and Teaching
Challenging Texts (Rowman & Littlefield, 2013).
iStockphoto
http://www.edweek.org/go/commentary

Education Week - May 20, 2015

Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of Education Week - May 20, 2015

Education Week - May 20, 2015
Gifted Programs Miss Disadvantaged Students
Army of Scorers Tackles Common-Core Tests
Groups Aim to Smooth Student-Police Relations
U.S. Senate Proposal Puts Spotlight On ‘Open Educational Resources’
Civil Rights Data Detail Increase In Complaints
Contents
News in Brief
Report Roundup
Accountability Measures for Traits Like ‘Grit’ Questioned
Long-Term Gains Seen for Kids Who Move Out of Poverty
Blogs of the Week
Selective Public Schools Struggle to Diversify Enrollments
Illinois Policymakers Scramble After Pension Law Struck Down
Student-Data Use a Key Issue In Debates Over Privacy Bills
Blogs of the Week
Why Not Practice What We Preached?
Education Has to Be a ‘Human Business’
Letters
TopSchoolJobs Recruitment Marketplace
Making the Right Commitment to Student-Data Privacy
Is the Public Ever Really Private?
Education Week - May 20, 2015 - Civil Rights Data Detail Increase In Complaints
Education Week - May 20, 2015 - 2
Education Week - May 20, 2015 - Contents
Education Week - May 20, 2015 - News in Brief
Education Week - May 20, 2015 - Report Roundup
Education Week - May 20, 2015 - Accountability Measures for Traits Like ‘Grit’ Questioned
Education Week - May 20, 2015 - Long-Term Gains Seen for Kids Who Move Out of Poverty
Education Week - May 20, 2015 - Blogs of the Week
Education Week - May 20, 2015 - 9
Education Week - May 20, 2015 - 10
Education Week - May 20, 2015 - 11
Education Week - May 20, 2015 - 12
Education Week - May 20, 2015 - 13
Education Week - May 20, 2015 - 14
Education Week - May 20, 2015 - 15
Education Week - May 20, 2015 - 16
Education Week - May 20, 2015 - Selective Public Schools Struggle to Diversify Enrollments
Education Week - May 20, 2015 - 18
Education Week - May 20, 2015 - Student-Data Use a Key Issue In Debates Over Privacy Bills
Education Week - May 20, 2015 - Blogs of the Week
Education Week - May 20, 2015 - 21
Education Week - May 20, 2015 - Why Not Practice What We Preached?
Education Week - May 20, 2015 - Education Has to Be a ‘Human Business’
Education Week - May 20, 2015 - Letters
Education Week - May 20, 2015 - 25
Education Week - May 20, 2015 - TopSchoolJobs Recruitment Marketplace
Education Week - May 20, 2015 - 27
Education Week - May 20, 2015 - Is the Public Ever Really Private?
Education Week - May 20, 2015 - CT1
Education Week - May 20, 2015 - CT2
Education Week - May 20, 2015 - CT3
Education Week - May 20, 2015 - CT4
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