Education Week - May 20, 2015 - 19

goVERNMENT & poLiTiCs
Student-Data Use a Key Issue in Debates Over Privacy Bills
TAKING STEPS
State lawmakers weighing
advocate, industry views
By Andrew Ujifusa
Building on last year's energetic debate in
states over how best to protect student data,
legislators have intensified efforts in 2015 to
address the issue in statehouses.
And this year, there's particularly prominent
tension between privacy advocates concerned
about loopholes through which data
can be shared and used inappropriately, and
the education technology providers who don't
want restrictions on access to learning software
and other services.
The template is being set by two bills in particular-one
state and one federal. The California
Student Online Personal Information
Protection Act (sopipa), passed last year, has
been praised by data-protection advocates and
is the model for bills introduced in 15 states
this year. And national attention is focused on
the federal Student Digital Rights and Parental
Rights Act of 2015, sponsored by Democratic
U.S. Rep. Jared Polis of Colorado and
Republican U.S. Rep. Luke Messer of Indiana,
which is designed to limit the sale of student
information to postsecondary institutions and
restrict educators' discretion over its dissemination.
Federal lawmakers have also recently
discussed proposals to overhaul the Family
Educational Rights and Privacy Act.
Good and Bad Cholesterol
According to the Data Quality Campaign, a
Washington-based organization that lobbies
for the effective use of student data, 177 bills
have been introduced in 45 states dealing
with student-data privacy and protection so
far this year, as of early May. That's up from
Although more bills on student-data privacy have been introduced in states this year than last-177 in 45 states, according to the
Data Quality Campaign-only 10 have been signed into law. Some of the notable legislation includes:
MARYLAND House Bill 298 was signed by Gov. Larry Hogan last week.
The law places new requirements on service providers for data security,
but critics say there are several loopholes.
VIRGINIA Gov. Terry McAuliffe, a Democrat, signed four bills this year
related to how student data can and can't be used, and the rights of
parents concerning their children's participation in certain surveys. House
Bill 2350, for example, requires the state to create a model data-security
plan for districts. It also creates the new position of chief data-security
officer to help districts with their security plans.
UTAH This year, Gov. Gary Herbert, a Republican, signed House Bill
163, which requires schools to notify parents if there is a security breach
involving their children's personally identifiable data. Gov. Herbert also
signed a bill that requires the state school board to submit a proposal
regarding how state lawmakers can update
student-privacy laws.
Source: Education Week
110 bills that were introduced in 36 states in
2014. But the approval rate for new laws has
actually slipped dramatically.
A big issue this year: how service providers
use or don't use data, and in what situations
they're held accountable.
The right environment for providers is one
in which their software or applications are
tailored to students' learning experiences, and
in which they can suggest other educational
services based on children's data, without allowing
that data to be used for things that
have nothing to do with education, said Paige
Kowalski, the vice president for policy and advocacy
at the Data Quality Campaign.
That could mean, for example, a ban on advertisements
for soft drinks in applications
that students are using, but not a prohibition
on recommending certain products in schools
that individual student data have indicated
could help the child.
"It's like cholesterol. Don't just lower cholesterol.
It's a little more complicated than that.
You want to raise one and lower another one,"
Ms. Kowalski said. "That wasn't something
any of us were talking about a year ago."
Mark Schneiderman, the senior director of
education policy for the Software and Information
Industry Association, who testified in a legislative
hearing about a Maryland bill, said one
of his organization's broader goals is to smooth
over inconsistencies in various states' policies,
in order "to ensure that we're not creating inappropriate
barriers to technology access in the
name of privacy."
Avoiding Future Use
One proposal this year that creates the
right balance while also establishing a clear
accountability system for governing student
data, according to Ms. Kowalski, is Georgia
Senate Bill 89. That legislation, which was
signed into law by gop Gov. Nathan Deal earlier
this month, allows student data to be used
"for adaptive learning or customized student
learning purposes" as well as "to recommend
additional content or services to students."
The new Georgia law also requires each local
school system to designate a person to address
data-privacy complaints from parents, and
for the state education department to create
a "chief privacy officer" and develop a model
policy for handling parent complaints.
Broadly speaking, states should also be working
to protect student data so information from
the K-12 years doesn't "come back to haunt the
student later in life," said Joni Lupovitz, the vice
president of policy at the San Francisco-based
Common Sense Media, which advocates for
student-privacy protections.
"If the worst thing that happens from focusPAGE
20 >
Illinois Policymakers Scramble After Pension Law Struck Down
By Andrew Ujifusa
An Illinois Supreme Court ruling
this month that overturned a 2013
law altering pensions for retired
teachers has not only scrambled the
state's financial outlook: It's pushed
first-year gop Gov. Bruce Rauner to
seek a constitutional amendment
that could clear a path for his own
overhaul of retirement benefits and
stop any legal challenge to it.
But shoring up the state budget
in light of the ruling won't be easy,
in part because lawmakers allowed
a statewide tax increase to partially
sunset at the start of this year, a fact
the justices noted in their unanimous
May 8 ruling.
While Gov. Rauner has a plan that
would create a distinction between
previously earned benefits and new,
less generous ones in order to boost
the pension system's fiscal health,
it's not clear it would pass muster
with either the legislature, controlled
by Democrats, or the courts.
And any constitutional amendment
from Gov. Rauner to protect his plan
or any other pension overhaul would
require approval from 60 percent of
both chambers of the legislature just
to be put on the ballot.
The state's highest court ruled that
Senate Bill 1, signed into law by Mr.
Rauner's Democratic predecessor, Gov.
Pat Quinn, in 2013, violated a section
of the Illinois Constitution stating
that membership benefits in a state
pension or retirement system "shall
not be diminished or impaired."
The latest numbers from the state
pension system, published last year,
show that the Teachers' Retirement
System had $62 billion in unfunded
liabilities, up from $56 billion roughly
a year ago, out of $111 billion in total
unfunded state-pension liabilities.
"Other than to come up with the
money to start paying off the unfunded
liabilities, there are some options out
there that are just wishing and hoping,"
said Kent Redfield, a professor
emeritus of political science at the University
of Illinois at Springfield who
has studied state politics and pensions.
Past vs. Future
Pennsylvania lawmakers are
coming to grips with their own underfunded
pension systems-a bill
passed by that state's Senate May 13
would require public school employees
in the state pension system hired
before 2010 to either pay more into
the system or agree to what is effectively
a reduction in their benefits.
In Illinois, the 2013 law signed by
Mr. Quinn and originally slated to go
"
Other than come up with money to start paying
off the unfunded liabilities, there are some options
out there that are just wishing and hoping."
KENT REDFIELD
University of Illinois at Springfield
into effect last June would have excluded
most pension issues from collective
bargaining, and reduced benefits
for workers below a certain level
of experience, among other changes.
We Are One Illinois, a coalition of
groups that includes teachers' unions,
immediately sued to overturn the
law. Defending it in court, the state
tion that reducing retirement benefits
is justified by economic circumstances
would require that we allow the legislature
to do the very thing the pension-protection
clause was designed to
prevent it from doing," Justice Lloyd A.
Karmeier wrote in the court's opinion.
For fiscal 2016 alone, Gov. Rauner's
office says, the state owes $7.6 billion
pointed to Illinois' strained finances-
including a $6.2 billion budget deficit
heading into fiscal 2016-and the burden
of the pensions. But the supreme
court justices laid the blame squarely
at the feet of lawmakers for not properly
funding the pension system.
"Indeed, accepting the state's posito
the pension system, about a quarter
of the state's operating budget.
The governor's plan would offer public
employees a lump-sum payment
into a supplemental defined-benefits
plan in exchange for shifting to a lower
cost-of-living adjustment, among other
changes. A lawyer for Gov. Rauner, Kim
Fowler, told lawmakers last week that,
in the governor's view, the court's opinion
protects only previously earned
benefits, not future ones.
But Rep. Scott Drury, a Democrat,
told the governor's staff that Mr.
Rauner's claim that his plan is constitutional
even as he seeks to amend
the constitution to provide legal cover
was problematic.
"The court poked a lot of holes in
what we did" in 2013, said Mr. Drury,
who at the same time acknowledged
that he wasn't sure what a sound plan
for pensions would ultimately look like.
Some options for the state could
include a push to reamortize its pension
debt and to move some of the
unfunded pension burden to districts
outside of Chicago, Mr. Redfield said.
But the court was clear on one issue,
he noted: "You can't screw around
with the formula to reduce benefits."
EDUCATION WEEK | May 20, 2015 | www.edweek.org | 19
http://www.edweek.org

Education Week - May 20, 2015

Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of Education Week - May 20, 2015

Education Week - May 20, 2015
Gifted Programs Miss Disadvantaged Students
Army of Scorers Tackles Common-Core Tests
Groups Aim to Smooth Student-Police Relations
U.S. Senate Proposal Puts Spotlight On ‘Open Educational Resources’
Civil Rights Data Detail Increase In Complaints
Contents
News in Brief
Report Roundup
Accountability Measures for Traits Like ‘Grit’ Questioned
Long-Term Gains Seen for Kids Who Move Out of Poverty
Blogs of the Week
Selective Public Schools Struggle to Diversify Enrollments
Illinois Policymakers Scramble After Pension Law Struck Down
Student-Data Use a Key Issue In Debates Over Privacy Bills
Blogs of the Week
Why Not Practice What We Preached?
Education Has to Be a ‘Human Business’
Letters
TopSchoolJobs Recruitment Marketplace
Making the Right Commitment to Student-Data Privacy
Is the Public Ever Really Private?
Education Week - May 20, 2015 - Civil Rights Data Detail Increase In Complaints
Education Week - May 20, 2015 - 2
Education Week - May 20, 2015 - Contents
Education Week - May 20, 2015 - News in Brief
Education Week - May 20, 2015 - Report Roundup
Education Week - May 20, 2015 - Accountability Measures for Traits Like ‘Grit’ Questioned
Education Week - May 20, 2015 - Long-Term Gains Seen for Kids Who Move Out of Poverty
Education Week - May 20, 2015 - Blogs of the Week
Education Week - May 20, 2015 - 9
Education Week - May 20, 2015 - 10
Education Week - May 20, 2015 - 11
Education Week - May 20, 2015 - 12
Education Week - May 20, 2015 - 13
Education Week - May 20, 2015 - 14
Education Week - May 20, 2015 - 15
Education Week - May 20, 2015 - 16
Education Week - May 20, 2015 - Selective Public Schools Struggle to Diversify Enrollments
Education Week - May 20, 2015 - 18
Education Week - May 20, 2015 - Student-Data Use a Key Issue In Debates Over Privacy Bills
Education Week - May 20, 2015 - Blogs of the Week
Education Week - May 20, 2015 - 21
Education Week - May 20, 2015 - Why Not Practice What We Preached?
Education Week - May 20, 2015 - Education Has to Be a ‘Human Business’
Education Week - May 20, 2015 - Letters
Education Week - May 20, 2015 - 25
Education Week - May 20, 2015 - TopSchoolJobs Recruitment Marketplace
Education Week - May 20, 2015 - 27
Education Week - May 20, 2015 - Is the Public Ever Really Private?
Education Week - May 20, 2015 - CT1
Education Week - May 20, 2015 - CT2
Education Week - May 20, 2015 - CT3
Education Week - May 20, 2015 - CT4
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