Education Week - May 13, 2020 - 16

Right-to-Education Ruling
Jolts Advocacy World
By Mark Walsh
A bold decision by a federal appeals court recognizing a right under
the U.S. Constitution to a basic
minimum education, in the form of
access to literacy, has cheered education-equity advocates and may be
felt far beyond the substandard Detroit schools that are the subject of
the underlying lawsuit.
"This was a real breakthrough,"
Michael A. Rebell, a professor and
the director of the Center for Educational Equity at Teachers College,
Columbia University, said in reference to the April 23 ruling by a panel
of the U.S. Court of Appeals for the
6th Circuit, in Cincinnati, that revived a lawsuit brought by a handful
of Detroit schoolchildren against the
state of Michigan alleging horrendous conditions in the city's schools.
"This is the first indication [in
more than four decades] that there
may really be an opening for some
kind of broad-based federal right to
education," said Rebell, who filed a
friend-of-the-court brief on the side
of the Detroit children and is also
spearheading a similar suit in Rhode
Island.
The earlier ruling Rebell referred to
was San Antonio Independent School
District v. Rodriguez, a landmark
U.S. Supreme Court decision in 1973
which rejected a 14th Amendment
equal-protection clause challenge
to Texas' school funding system by
residents of a small, property-poor
school district, the Edgewood Independent School District, which covers part of San Antonio.
The nearly half-century-old decision was long considered to have
foreclosed efforts to use the federal
courts for broad-based equity or adequacy lawsuits.
But in recent years, scholars and litigators have advanced a range of new
arguments for recognizing education
as a right, to some degree or another,
under the U.S. Constitution or under
federal statutory law.
"It's quite remarkable that in 2020,
there are multiple cases in federal
courts that are alleging a federal right
to education," said Kimberly Jenkins
Robinson, a University of Virginia
law professor and the editor of a new
book of scholarly essays on the topic,
appropriately titled A Federal Right to
Education: Fundamental Questions for
Our Democracy.
She said that the Supreme Court's
Rodriguez ruling had pushed litigants
toward the state courts to seek broad
improvements over the last 40 or
more years, with only modest success.
"Despite decades of litigation, the
state courts have not effectively been
able to hold the states accountable
for providing an adequate and equitable education," Robinson said.
The lawsuit alleges that the plain-

tiff children's schools are five of the
lowest-performing in the state, and
that conditions in those schools are
so bad-due to the absence of qualified teachers, crumbling facilities,
and insufficient materials-that the
schools fail to provide access to literacy. The suit has vivid descriptions
mentioning mice, cockroaches, and
other vermin in classrooms, unsuitable drinking water, outdated learning materials, and insufficient learning outcomes.
"The degrading of the Detroit
schools started in the 1990s," under
state control, said Mark D. Rosenbaum, the legal director of Public
Counsel, a Los Angeles-based public
interest law firm that is spearheading
the Detroit suit.
A federal district court had dismissed the suit. In the 6th Circuit,
the plaintiffs drew widespread support in friend-of-the-court briefs
from the Detroit public school system, from scholars, and others.
The 6th Circuit panel rejected two
of the theories advanced by lawyers
for the plaintiffs, one based on the
14th Amendment's equal-protection
clause and one based on compulsory
attendance requirements.
But the majority recognized the
right to a basic minimum education
and access to literacy as part of the
14th Amendment's guarantee of
"substantive due process," which is
how the Supreme Court has recognized rights beyond procedural due
process that aren't mentioned in the
Constitution, such as the right to privacy and bodily integrity.
"Plaintiffs contend that access to
literary, as opposed to other educational achievements, is a gateway
milestone, one that unlocks the
basic exercise of other fundamental
rights, including the possibility of
political participation," said the majority opinion by Judge Eric L. Clay.
"While the [U.S.] Supreme Court has
repeatedly discussed this issue, it has
never decided it, and the question of
whether such a right exists remains
open today."
The majority marshaled much support for the idea that the Supreme
Court has not completely foreclosed
the recognition of some form of
basic education as a federal right by
starting with the Rodriguez decision
itself-the same decision that held
there was no broad, fundamental
U.S. constitutional right to education.

"This case is more troublesome
for me than it otherwise would be
because of my long association with
public education," Powell wrote to
one of his law clerks in October 1972,
the same month the case was argued.
Powell embraced the assignment
he received to write the opinion for
the court holding that there was no
fundamental right to education and
that the Texas school finance system, which included wide disparities
in funding because of its reliance on
property taxes, did not violate the
equal-protection clause.
Speaking for the 5-4 majority, Powell
rejected the Texas plaintiffs' claim that
education was a fundamental personal

right because it was essential to the effective exercise of First Amendment
freedoms of expression and to the intelligent use of the right to vote.
"Even if it were conceded that
some identifiable quantum of education is a constitutionally protected
prerequisite to the meaningful exercise of either right, we have no
indication that the present levels of
educational expenditures in Texas
provide an education that falls
short," Powell wrote.
However, Powell suggested that
the Constitution might be violated
if "a state's financing system occasioned an absolute denial of educational opportunities to any of its
children," or if the state failed "to
provide each child with an opportunity to acquire the basic minimal
skills necessary for the enjoyment of
the rights of speech and of full participation in the political process."
This was a sort of keystone for the
6th Circuit majority in the recent
Detroit case. "Thus, the [Supreme]

An Open Question
Several recent lawsuits in the federal courts have advanced
theories of a federal right to education under the U.S.
Constitution or under federal statutes.
Gary B. v. Whitmer
A federal lawsuit alleges that conditions in the Detroit public
schools are so poor that they deny students a federal right
of access to literacy, which is necessary for effective political
participation. On April 23, a panel of the U.S. Court of Appeals for
the 6th Circuit, in Cincinnati, recognized a 14th Amendment due
process right to a minimum basic education, or access to literacy.
It is unclear whether the state plans to appeal.

Cook v. Raimondo
This suit filed on behalf of 14 students in Rhode Island alleges
that state officials have failed to provide the state's students
with a meaningful opportunity to obtain an adequate education
to prepare them to be capable citizens. A federal district court
heard arguments in December on the state's motion to dismiss
and a decision is pending.

Williams v. Reeves
In this suit, a group of African-American women whose children
attend poor schools in Mississippi assert that the removal of
a school uniformity clause from an earlier state constitution
has caused significant disparities in the educational resources,
opportunities, and outcomes for students based on their race.
In April, a panel of the U.S. Court of Appeals for the 5th Circuit,
in New Orleans, revived the suit and backed the contention that
the removal of the uniformity clause violated the 1870 federal law
that readmitted Mississippi to the Union after the Civil War.

Martinez v. Malloy
A federal suit in Connecticut alleged that various state laws and
policies kept inner-city students from receiving a minimally
adequate education. In 2018, a federal district court dismissed
the suit, holding that there was no fundamental right under the
U.S. Constitution to a minimally adequate education.
SOURCE: Education Week

Federal Schools Standards?

A Justice's Perspective
The author of the Rodriguez opinion
was Justice Lewis F. Powell Jr., who
had just joined the high court months
before the Texas case was heard. He
had been a member of the Richmond,
Va., school board through most of the
1950s, and on the Virginia state board
of education, including a period as its
chairman, in the 1960s.

16 | EDUCATION WEEK | May 13, 2020 | www.edweek.org

Court never ruled on the right to such
a basic minimum education, and as
shown more explicitly in its later
cases, saved the question for another
day," the appeals court said.
Those later cases where the 6th
Circuit found further evidence that
the right to a minimum education
was still left open were Plyler v. Doe,
the 1982 decision that struck down
efforts by Texas to keep undocumented immigrant students out of
its public schools; Papasan v. Allain, a
1986 decision about claims by some
Mississippi students that they were
denied the economic benefits of U.S.granted school lands; and Kadrmas
v. Dickinson Public Schools, a 1988
ruling upholding a fee North Dakota
schools charged for riding the bus.
In Plyler, the court noted the conclusion in Rodriguez that education
was not a fundamental constitutional right, but it spoke at length
about education providing "the basic
tools by which individuals might lead
economically productive lives to the
benefit of us all" and how "education
has a fundamental role in maintaining the fabric of our society."
With Papasan, the 6th Circuit
seized on that decision's characterization of how the Supreme Court
had left open the question of a minimal right to education.
"As Rodriguez and Plyler indicate,
this court has not yet definitively
settled the [question of ] whether a
minimally adequate education is a
fundamental right," the high court
said in Papasan.
Finally, in Kadrmas, the 6th Circuit
court looked to a characterization by
Justice Thurgood Marshall, in a dissent in that case, that the Supreme
Court has "explicitly left open" the
question of "whether a state constitutionally could deny a child access
to a minimally adequate education."
Robinson, who also edited a book
about the legacy of the Rodriguez
case, said the Supreme Court "left
the door open" to recognizing a right
to a basic minimum education and
"has acknowledged that the door was
left open."
Martha Minow, a professor and
former dean at Harvard Law School,
observed that the 6th Circuit court
also found support for its decision in
other cases, including the Supreme
Court's 1954 landmark desegregation in Brown v. Board of Education of
Topeka.
"This decision says there is a denial of a federal right and it's not just
a denial of equal opportunity," said
Minow, who is a scholar of the Brown
decision and filed a brief in the Detroit case supporting the plaintiffs.
"I think the direct through-line to
Brown is there."

Getty

The dissenter on the 6th Circuit
panel, Judge Eric E. Murphy, interpreted those four Supreme Court
precedents differently. In each, he
said, the court stated or repeated
that "education is not a fundamental
right."
And he pointed to language in another case for support. In Ambach v.
Norwick, a 1979 decision upholding


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Education Week - May 13, 2020

Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of Education Week - May 13, 2020

Education Week - May 13, 2020
Collapse: Coronavirus Will Make Inequalities in Public Schools Even Worse
Briefly Stated
Remembering 18-Year-Old Who Died From Coronavirus
‘Summer Melt’ Could Be a Flood As Seniors Shift College Plans
Schools Struggle to Meet Students’ Mounting Mental-Health Needs
7 Big Issues for Unions and Districts in Remote Teaching Agreements
District Hard-Hit by COVID-19 Begins ‘Tough Work’ of Getting On
Right-to-Education Ruling Jolts Advocacy World
Teachers Without Internet Work In Parking Lots, Empty School Building During COVID-19
What We Can Still Learn From Hurricane Katrina
A Blueprint for Reopening Schools This Fall
The Sleeping Giant: Emotional Trauma
Letters to the Editor
EdWeek Top School Jobs
Education Week - May 13, 2020 - Collapse: Coronavirus Will Make Inequalities in Public Schools Even Worse
Education Week - May 13, 2020 - 2
Education Week - May 13, 2020 - Briefly Stated
Education Week - May 13, 2020 - 4
Education Week - May 13, 2020 - Remembering 18-Year-Old Who Died From Coronavirus
Education Week - May 13, 2020 - ‘Summer Melt’ Could Be a Flood As Seniors Shift College Plans
Education Week - May 13, 2020 - 7
Education Week - May 13, 2020 - Schools Struggle to Meet Students’ Mounting Mental-Health Needs
Education Week - May 13, 2020 - 9
Education Week - May 13, 2020 - 10
Education Week - May 13, 2020 - 7 Big Issues for Unions and Districts in Remote Teaching Agreements
Education Week - May 13, 2020 - 12
Education Week - May 13, 2020 - 13
Education Week - May 13, 2020 - District Hard-Hit by COVID-19 Begins ‘Tough Work’ of Getting On
Education Week - May 13, 2020 - 15
Education Week - May 13, 2020 - Right-to-Education Ruling Jolts Advocacy World
Education Week - May 13, 2020 - Teachers Without Internet Work In Parking Lots, Empty School Building During COVID-19
Education Week - May 13, 2020 - What We Can Still Learn From Hurricane Katrina
Education Week - May 13, 2020 - The Sleeping Giant: Emotional Trauma
Education Week - May 13, 2020 - Letters to the Editor
Education Week - May 13, 2020 - 21
Education Week - May 13, 2020 - 22
Education Week - May 13, 2020 - EdWeek Top School Jobs
Education Week - May 13, 2020 - 24
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