Education Week - May 11, 2022 - 21

Why Students Can't Tell
Fact From Fiction Online
The three persistent myths about online fact-checking
By Sarah McGrew
I
f you are a teacher, you've probably heard
students share something they learned on
TikTok or Instagram and thought, " That
doesn't sound true. ... " Sometimes, those
stories are lighthearted and laughed off.
Other times, they shape the way students
think about the world and their place in it.
For example, students are sharing what they've heard
on social media about the war in Ukraine. Some stories
are true, but some are questionable or completely made
up. As community members and soon-to-be voters,
students should be able to sort fact from fiction and
high-quality sources from propaganda. As teachers, we
have an opportunity-even an obligation-to help.
However, such help may not be widespread. In a
recent survey by Common Sense Media, fewer than 4 in
10 K-12 teachers in the United States reported teaching
students to evaluate online information.
Even students who do receive such instruction may
get advice that was truest when we connected to the
internet via dial-up modems:
Websites that end in dot-org are more reliable than
dot-coms.
If a site looks professional, it is probably more
trustworthy.
The " About " page will tell you everything you need
to know about a website.
These and other evaluative shortcuts, what I call weak
heuristics, no longer serve us well. Anyone can now
register a dot-org domain. A site's design has no direct
connection to its reliability. Authors and organizations
can describe themselves however they like, including
untruthfully, on their " About " pages. These shortcuts
falter because they rely on features that have something
in common: They are controlled by a site's creator. That
creator can assemble these features to craft whatever
impression they desire.
Yet students continue to rely on weak heuristics to
decide what to trust online. How come? As a student I
recently interviewed said when I asked why she thought
dot-org websites were more reliable than dot-coms:
" That's all I've really ever been taught. "
In many cases, students' assumptions about the
internet are no different from those held by adults.
When Stanford professor Sam Wineburg and I studied
how professional fact-checkers, history professors, and
college students evaluated information, many of those
professors used a similar approach-one that looked
a lot like their students'. They stayed on unfamiliar
websites and tried to make decisions about what to trust
using weak heuristics. They often came up short. It turns
out that, unless we've been explicitly taught, none of us
is very good at evaluating online information.
This means that we need to create opportunities
for students to learn to evaluate digital content in
K-12 classrooms. It also means that teachers need
opportunities to learn themselves. Otherwise, teachers
might encourage evaluative shortcuts that could lead
students astray. As a researcher and teacher educator,
I am committed to understanding and developing
ways to support teachers to learn effective evaluation
strategies themselves and to plan for how to respond to
the approaches their students bring to class. But students
aren't going to stop learning from social media in the
meantime. What can teachers do in their classrooms
right now?
First, help students learn to stop relying on
approaches that we know can result in flawed
conclusions. The approaches students may have relied
on (or been taught) in the past are insufficient for the
internet we inhabit today. We can demonstrate how
these weak heuristics break down.
Students may be taken in by a TikTok video that
accumulated thousands of likes and purports to show
heart-pounding scenes of the war in Ukraine but
was actually filmed in 2014. Students may want to
dismiss a website explaining the roots of the RussiaUkraine
conflict because it has a dot-com domain and
basic design when, in fact, the site is backed by an
authoritative organization and written by an author
with relevant expertise. Such examples will help
students learn that they cannot assess the reliability of
a site or social media post by simply looking at it.
Second, help students replace weak heuristics with
stronger approaches. Students should learn that the
most efficient way to decide whether to trust online
content is, paradoxically, to leave it. In the study with
professional fact-checkers, professors, and students,
we observed that fact-checkers invested little time on
unfamiliar sites.
Instead, these experts investigated sources
by reading laterally: They opened new browser tabs
and did a quick search for more information about
the source or the claims being made. Teaching lateral
reading doesn't take a long time, and we have evidence
that it makes a difference. For example, if a student
mentions something they saw on social media, take
a few minutes to display the post and discuss how to
investigate its veracity. There are a lot of ideas in the
free Civic Online Reasoning lessons and assessments,
which I helped create with the Stanford History
Education Group.
As misinformation about new crises spreads, the
urgency of supporting students to evaluate online
information grows. Let's help students learn to make
sense of the information that bombards them. A clear
first step is to make sure we're not teaching them
shortcuts that we know do not serve them well.
McGREW is an assistant professor in the College of
Education at the University of Maryland, College Park.
EDUCATION WEEK | May 11, 2022 | www.edweek.org/opinion | 21
F. Sheehan for Education Week/Getty
http://www.edweek.org/opinion

Education Week - May 11, 2022

Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of Education Week - May 11, 2022

Education Week - May 11, 2022
Briefly Stated
Why Misusing ‘Groomer’ as a Political Smear Is Especially Dangerous
School Sports Are Back. Where Are the Athletes?
What the Research Says
‘It Can Save Lives’: Students Testify To the Power of Poetry
Key Takeaways From Praying-Coach Case While U.S. Supreme Court Deliberates
1 in 5 Educators Say They’ve Experienced Long COVID
A Flood of Federal Cash and Then Layoffs. What Gives?
With Millions of Kids on the Line, Can Schools Make Tutoring Work?
Online Tutoring Can Be Effective, Research Shows
What Is Culturally Responsive Teaching?
What Should Culturally Relevant Teaching Look Like Today?
What If We Treated Public Education Like the Crisis It Is?
Why Students Can’t Tell Fact From Fiction Online
Letters to the Editor
EdWeek Top School Jobs
Hardest Year Ever? One Teacher’s View
Education Week - May 11, 2022 - Education Week - May 11, 2022
Education Week - May 11, 2022 - CW2
Education Week - May 11, 2022 - 1
Education Week - May 11, 2022 - Briefly Stated
Education Week - May 11, 2022 - 3
Education Week - May 11, 2022 - School Sports Are Back. Where Are the Athletes?
Education Week - May 11, 2022 - What the Research Says
Education Week - May 11, 2022 - ‘It Can Save Lives’: Students Testify To the Power of Poetry
Education Week - May 11, 2022 - 7
Education Week - May 11, 2022 - Key Takeaways From Praying-Coach Case While U.S. Supreme Court Deliberates
Education Week - May 11, 2022 - 9
Education Week - May 11, 2022 - 9A
Education Week - May 11, 2022 - 1 in 5 Educators Say They’ve Experienced Long COVID
Education Week - May 11, 2022 - 11
Education Week - May 11, 2022 - A Flood of Federal Cash and Then Layoffs. What Gives?
Education Week - May 11, 2022 - 13
Education Week - May 11, 2022 - With Millions of Kids on the Line, Can Schools Make Tutoring Work?
Education Week - May 11, 2022 - Online Tutoring Can Be Effective, Research Shows
Education Week - May 11, 2022 - What Is Culturally Responsive Teaching?
Education Week - May 11, 2022 - What Should Culturally Relevant Teaching Look Like Today?
Education Week - May 11, 2022 - 18
Education Week - May 11, 2022 - 19
Education Week - May 11, 2022 - What If We Treated Public Education Like the Crisis It Is?
Education Week - May 11, 2022 - Why Students Can’t Tell Fact From Fiction Online
Education Week - May 11, 2022 - Letters to the Editor
Education Week - May 11, 2022 - EdWeek Top School Jobs
Education Week - May 11, 2022 - Hardest Year Ever? One Teacher’s View
Education Week - May 11, 2022 - CW3
Education Week - May 11, 2022 - CW4
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