Education Week - May 11, 2022 - 12

A Flood of Federal
Cash and Then
Layoffs. What Gives?
By Mark Lieberman
In 1999, the Mount Diablo district
in California opened a new school
for students who were expelled for
drugs, fighting, or missing school too
many times.
Billy Becker, the first teacher hired
at the school, said he's seen some
graduates go on to become lawyers or
a molecular biologist.
" Our school is a second chance, "
he said.
But after 22 years, that chance will
be no more. The Mount Diablo district
announced in February that it
will close its alternative school at the
end of this school year, as part of a
broader initiative to tighten the district's
expenses.
That's despite the district's $62 million
in federal pandemic relief aid,
which has helped the district cover
some existing salary costs, purchase
new technology tools, invest in remote
learning, and offer academic
support to struggling students, among
other priorities.
" When I spoke in front of the
school board, I mentioned that I understand
we might need to make
budget cuts, " Becker said. " But to cut
the entire school, to close it, makes no
sense. "
Adam Clark, the district's superintendent,
sees the decision from a different
vantage point.
The roughly 30,000-student district
since 2020 has lost 1,000 students
to private schools and neighboring
districts where home rentals
are cheaper, prompting cuts to state
aid. The Day School itself, which has
four employees including Becker, has
seen enrollment dwindle from an average
of 30 students to just 15 this
school year.
The district's federal pandemic
aid will dry up in a couple years. And
the county and state governments
are monitoring the district's finances
after district administrators couldn't
certify that it would meet its financial
obligations for the following three
years.
" We shouldn't be cutting. The accounting
practices that we need to
follow as a district [don't] make sense
to everyone, " Clark said. " But unfortunately
that's our reality. "
A surge in temporary federal funding
has created the perception among
many commentators and members
of the public that schools across the
country have more money at their disposal
than ever before. But some district
leaders say the windfall obscures
a less rosy reality, in which declining
enrollment, surging inflation, and
volatile state funding have squeezed
their ability to maintain services, let
alone expand them or innovate.
Administrators are juggling numerous
priorities while confronting
dilemmas that are difficult to explain
to staff and the general public. Pentup
frustration over perpetually underfunded
programs and resources
has led some school communities to
engage in contentious fights over proposed
cuts, occasionally resulting in
protests, walkouts and strikes among
workers and students.
" How do you tell someone in one
breath that we have to figure out
how to spend this [COVID recovery]
money, and it can only be used for
these specific things, but then on the
other end we're cutting? " said Tanya
Monson-Ek, finance director for the
Thief River Falls district in Minnesota,
which is laying off close to 20 employees
before next year. " It's really
hard. "
Teachers, counselors,
academic programs are
on the chopping block
Budget cuts are a fixture of America's
K-12 landscape every year, and
this one is no exception, even as many
states are flush with cash, and schools
received nearly $200 billion from the
federal government to help them endure
and recover from the pandemic.
Many students lost months of classroom
instruction during school building
closures, and the trauma from
the death and suffering wrought by
the pandemic has taken a toll on students'
emotions, behavior, and mental
health.
One in 10 district leaders and principals
who answered a nationally representative
April survey by the EdWeek
Research Center said they're
expecting layoffs in their school or
district before the next academic
year.
Many more districts will trim academic
programs, scale back bus
service,
shrink maintenance projects,
eliminate unfilled positions, or
raise parent fees for field trips and
textbooks. In extreme cases, entire
school buildings will close.
Districts' current budget challenges,
particularly in low-wealth areas,
highlight the cascade of fiscal pressures
schools regularly experience,
thanks to the nation's convoluted and
inequitable school finance system.
Here are some examples of districts
making budget cuts this year.
Each example includes the total
amount of federal aid they got from
the three ESSER pandemic relief
packages in 2020 and 2021, according
to an Associated Press analysis of
state and federal data.
* The Fairbanks district in Alaska
(roughly $3,000 per student in
ESSER funds) is closing three school
buildings and laying off dozens of
employees as state lawmakers balk
at offering additional funds that don't
come with strings. The district's en12
| EDUCATION WEEK | May 11, 2022 | www.edweek.org
Signs support keeping Diablo Community Day School open in Concord, Calif. The school is being closed at the end of
the school year due to budget cuts.
rollment-based funding has declined,
as has property tax revenue.
* Schools in Hollister, Calif. ($1,800
per student) will dismiss 59 staffers to
meet state requirements that no more
than 90 percent of operating funds
are spent on compensating staff.
* Forty percent of school princiWe
shouldn't
be cutting.
The accounting
practices that
we need to
follow as a
district [don't]
make sense to
everyone. But
unfortunately
that's our
reality.
ADAM CLARK
Superintendent of schools,
Mount Diablo Unified School
District, Concord, Calif.
pals in Chicago ($8,090 per student)
say they're getting less money this
year than they did last year. District
leaders say they're centralizing some
costs that used to be incurred by individual
buildings, and adjusting based
on declining enrollment.
* Hopes in the Marlington schools
in Ohio were dashed in early May
when voters rejected a levy that
would have prevented the loss of between
and three dozen educators.
Maintenance costs have been far
steeper than the state's annual allotment
for capital projects, leaving the
district in a deficit.
* In Saugus, Calif., ($825 per student)
all seven of the district's counselors
may be out of work come this fall.
District leaders said insufficient base
funding from the state is to blame.
* And in Minneapolis ($7,240 per
student), where employees recently
engaged in a strike for more than two
weeks, 250 teachers may lose their
jobs, and 1 in 4 are teachers of color,
according to the district. State funding
per pupil hasn't kept up with inflation
in recent years, the superintendent
says.
Why are schools cutting despite a
federal windfall? That money is difficult
to spend, and can't go toward
costs that will recur beyond 2024.
State funding is generally tied to enrollment
and attendance, which have
been unusually volatile during the
pandemic.
Districts also face a wide range of
ballooning expenses that show no
signs of letting up:
* Inflation is driving up the cost of
fuel, electricity, school supplies, and
insurance.
* Unionized labor forces are demanding
higher wages and more-robust
benefits as their members express
longstanding frustrations over
their working conditions.
* Fixed costs of employer-sponsored
health insurance and pensions are perpetually
increasing.
* New modern pressures on districts,
from cybersecurity risks to charged racial
and political disputes over curriculum
materials and escalating mental
health concerns among students, are
introducing new costs all the time.
Schools devote the vast majority of
their budgets to salaries and benefits,
and they're often looking to shrink
that portion of the budget pie to make
room for other essential components
like energy costs and classroom supplies.
Some districts are even using
federal funds to plug existing budget
holes.
Not all cuts have equally severe
ramifications. Some district budgets
are littered with excess and redundancies.
Eliminating long-vacant positions
hurts far less than putting someone
out of work. And particularly steep
declining enrollment can sometimes
mean less investment is necessary.
The massive K-12 layoff crisis that appeared
possible in the early days of the
pandemic didn't come to pass.
But any job loss in a precarious field
like education can be painful for the
employees, for the community, and
for the students.
Costs are rising faster than
funding is keeping up
States contribute roughly 45 percent
of annual K-12 spending in the
U.S., and some property-poor districts
rely on an even higher percentage
to make up for shortfalls in local
funding.
States take a variety of approaches
to incorporating inflation when calculating
their contributions to school
budgets. Montana, for instance, has a
law that requires the state to calculate
inflation each year and adjust school
funding accordingly.
But some states don't have a codified
approach to ensuring school
budgets meet inflationary pressures.
Ramin Rahimian for Education Week
http://www.edweek.org

Education Week - May 11, 2022

Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of Education Week - May 11, 2022

Education Week - May 11, 2022
Briefly Stated
Why Misusing ‘Groomer’ as a Political Smear Is Especially Dangerous
School Sports Are Back. Where Are the Athletes?
What the Research Says
‘It Can Save Lives’: Students Testify To the Power of Poetry
Key Takeaways From Praying-Coach Case While U.S. Supreme Court Deliberates
1 in 5 Educators Say They’ve Experienced Long COVID
A Flood of Federal Cash and Then Layoffs. What Gives?
With Millions of Kids on the Line, Can Schools Make Tutoring Work?
Online Tutoring Can Be Effective, Research Shows
What Is Culturally Responsive Teaching?
What Should Culturally Relevant Teaching Look Like Today?
What If We Treated Public Education Like the Crisis It Is?
Why Students Can’t Tell Fact From Fiction Online
Letters to the Editor
EdWeek Top School Jobs
Hardest Year Ever? One Teacher’s View
Education Week - May 11, 2022 - Education Week - May 11, 2022
Education Week - May 11, 2022 - CW2
Education Week - May 11, 2022 - 1
Education Week - May 11, 2022 - Briefly Stated
Education Week - May 11, 2022 - 3
Education Week - May 11, 2022 - School Sports Are Back. Where Are the Athletes?
Education Week - May 11, 2022 - What the Research Says
Education Week - May 11, 2022 - ‘It Can Save Lives’: Students Testify To the Power of Poetry
Education Week - May 11, 2022 - 7
Education Week - May 11, 2022 - Key Takeaways From Praying-Coach Case While U.S. Supreme Court Deliberates
Education Week - May 11, 2022 - 9
Education Week - May 11, 2022 - 9A
Education Week - May 11, 2022 - 1 in 5 Educators Say They’ve Experienced Long COVID
Education Week - May 11, 2022 - 11
Education Week - May 11, 2022 - A Flood of Federal Cash and Then Layoffs. What Gives?
Education Week - May 11, 2022 - 13
Education Week - May 11, 2022 - With Millions of Kids on the Line, Can Schools Make Tutoring Work?
Education Week - May 11, 2022 - Online Tutoring Can Be Effective, Research Shows
Education Week - May 11, 2022 - What Is Culturally Responsive Teaching?
Education Week - May 11, 2022 - What Should Culturally Relevant Teaching Look Like Today?
Education Week - May 11, 2022 - 18
Education Week - May 11, 2022 - 19
Education Week - May 11, 2022 - What If We Treated Public Education Like the Crisis It Is?
Education Week - May 11, 2022 - Why Students Can’t Tell Fact From Fiction Online
Education Week - May 11, 2022 - Letters to the Editor
Education Week - May 11, 2022 - EdWeek Top School Jobs
Education Week - May 11, 2022 - Hardest Year Ever? One Teacher’s View
Education Week - May 11, 2022 - CW3
Education Week - May 11, 2022 - CW4
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