Education Week - May 10, 2017 - 8

Teacher Residencies Can Help Curb Shortages, Studies Say
Scholars at AERA
take up the topic
By Sarah D. Sparks
San Antonio

There are two ways to prevent
a teacher shortage in American
schools: Widen the pipeline into the
profession, or plug the leaky bucket
of young teachers leaving the field.
At the American Educational Research Association meeting here
last month, academic researchers
debated ways to use comprehensive
teacher residencies to both recruit
and retain teachers.
Only about 50 programs nationwide use comprehensive teacher
residencies, in which universities
partner with local school districts to
provide long-term student-teaching
in exchange for teachers agreeing to
work in the district for a period of
time. Each of those residencies only
produces from five to 100 new teachers a year-not enough to fill gaps in
teacher pools nationwide.
But Roneeta Guha, a researcher
with the Learning Policy Institute,
and her colleagues found residencies were more likely to produce new
teachers from minority backgrounds;
45 percent of residency teachers nationwide in 2015-16 were teachers of
color, compared with only 19 percent
of new teachers overall. Moreover,

across the 50 residency programs
studied, 82 percent of graduates
were still teaching four years later,
10 percentage points higher than
other new teachers.
The most effective teacher residencies, Guha found, were developed by strong partnerships between districts and universities,
with preservice teachers' coursework closely integrated with their
student-teaching.
Candidates were recruited from
diverse backgrounds but for specific
fields, like math or special education, in which the district had shortages. The researchers found that
most of the residency programs offered stipends-as much as $4,000
a semester in some-in exchange
for residents committing to teach
for three to five years.

Valuable Experience
Educators in those programs
spent on average a full year teaching with an experienced mentor,
often in "teaching schools" that
modeled best practices for educating students with diverse needs
and backgrounds. That means they
received up to 900 hours of experience, 10 times as much as in a
typical alternative-certification
program and about 300 hours more
than traditional teacher-preparation programs, Guha said.
"Residencies are really a tightly

integrated system," she said.
Finally, the residencies continued to provide mentor support for
the residents a year or more after
they graduated and began teaching
full time.
Learning to teach in a particular
school context can help new teachers
develop better cultural understanding of their students, according to
Peter Williamson, an associate professor of teaching at Stanford University's graduate school of education.
"There's a tension that's inherent in
many teacher-residency programs,"
he said. While teachers need to learn
to work closely with other teachers
in the schools where they will be
teaching, "there's a risk that they
will adopt the practices and beliefs of
schools deemed to be underperforming. They need to swim upstream
against the tide of deficit views of students in underperforming schools."
To counter that, the San Francisco
Teacher Residency-a partnership of
the city's school district and teachers'
union and Stanford University and
the University of San Francisco-
modeled its program on medical
residencies that include "rounds"
of experience with specific student
populations. For example, teacherresidents observe classes in local
juvenile-justice schools, then discuss
and plan how they would teach the
same group of students with their
instructors.
"We want them to really see the

2/5-PAGE (4 COLUMNS)

school-to-prison pipeline, not just
read about it," Williamson said. "We
want them to develop an appreciation
for what those kids can and cannot
do. ...We're pushing back on the idea
that it is not the teacher's job to help
students in traditionally underserved
settings."

"

We want them
to develop an
appreciation for
what those kids
can and cannot do."
PETER WILLIAMSON
Stanford University Graduate
School of Education

After five years, Williamson found,
92 percent of residency teachers were
still working in the district, compared
with little more than half of other
novice teachers in the district and
20 percent of the new teachers who
came through Teach For America.
Nearly all the residents were teaching in high-poverty, high-minority
schools.
Boston's teacher-residency program
took a different tack.

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8 | EDUCATION WEEK | May 10, 2017 | www.edweek.org

Initially, the four-year program
included one year of residency
and three of continued mentoring,
with teachers scattered in schools
throughout the city.
But graduates initially scored low
to moderate on value-added teacher
evaluations, in which teachers' effectiveness is gauged in part based
on how much growth their students
make on standardized tests. The
lackluster results prompted the program to tighten its focus, said Jesse
Solomon, a researcher for the Boston
Teacher Residency.
Now, teachers are clustered in fewer
schools, based on their content areas,
to create networks of student-teachers. The district set up two "teaching
academy" schools, which have more
flexibility to adapt scheduling, staffing, and team-teaching to give teacher
residents more experience.
Solomon compared 269 residency
graduates with other new teachers
in the district. Five years after they
graduated, he found that more than
70 percent of the residency graduates were still teaching in the district,
and their efforts had greater effects
on student achievement than new
teachers who did not come from the
program.

Rural Resident Teachers
Guha of the Learning Policy Institute found only about five of the 50
high-quality teacher residencies supported rural districts.
"A lot of the [residency] structure
stays the same, but shifting from
urban to rural differs in how we
engage with the community," said
Emilie Reagan, a co-principal investigator for the University of New
Hampshire's new Rural Teacher
Residency, which launches its first
teaching group later this month. The
New Hampshire researchers did not
present at the AERA.
"We have two communities in
northern New Hampshire that are
45 miles apart and separated by
mountainous regions. So coordinating
everyone is very different from just
getting everyone on a subway in New
York," Reagan said.
The 15-month residency provides
a $28,000 stipend and a scholarship
covering half of college tuition. It also
starts the summer before the school
year, when each resident has a mentor in the community who helps the
teacher understand where to find
classroom resources and social connections in the town.
"In some ways, [traditional teacher
preparation] might have sanitized
things too much, in terms of separating knowledge from the experiences
that are a part of life for students and
members in a community" where preservice educators will teach, said Leslie Couse, the education chairwoman
at the University of New Hampshire
and a co-principal investigator for the
project.
By the time teachers leave the
residency, "they will have spent four
years in a rural community and we
hope will be more likely to stay than
if they were simply parachuted into a
place that they don't have any insider
knowledge about."


http://www.edweek.org/go/21Trends http://www.edweek.org

Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of Education Week - May 10, 2017

Education Week - May 10, 2017
Pruning Dead-End Pathways In Career Tech. Ed.
Teachers Lace Academics With Relationship Skills
DIGITAL DIRECTIONS: Ed-Tech Leadership Hazy Under Trump
Parker Davis and Alina Lopez, right, talk about words and acts that cause happiness, in a 2nd grade classroom at Lincoln Elementary School in Oakland, Calif. Peer-to-peer conversations are part of an effort to build academic and social-emotional skills
Legislatures Tackle ESSA, Fiscal Issues
Report Roundup
News in Brief
Record U.S. Graduation Rate Not Seen as Inflated
Obama-Era Nutrition Standards Loosened for School Meals
Mostly White Town Can Leave Diverse District, Court Says
Teacher Residencies Can Help Curb Shortages, Studies Say
Do Parents See Math as ‘Less Useful’ Than Reading?
Oregon GEAR UP Links Rural Students To Private Colleges
2017 Budget Deal Defers Fierce Fights on Education Aid
Trump Orders Hard Look At Federal Reach on K-12 Policy
Hurdles Remain for Calif. K-12 Funding Formula, Study Says
100 Days: How Three Presidents Stack Up on K-12
Rafiq R. Kalam Id-Din II: Black Teachers Matter. School Integration Doesn’t
By Robert W. Runcie & Antwan Wilson: How We Stopped Sending Students to Jail
Q&A With Peggy Orenstein: Let’s Talk to K-12 Girls About Sex
Letters
TopSchoolJobs Recruitment Marketplace
David Jacobson: A Purple Agenda for (Early) Education
Education Week - May 10, 2017 - Legislatures Tackle ESSA, Fiscal Issues
Education Week - May 10, 2017 - 2
Education Week - May 10, 2017 - 3
Education Week - May 10, 2017 - News in Brief
Education Week - May 10, 2017 - 5
Education Week - May 10, 2017 - Obama-Era Nutrition Standards Loosened for School Meals
Education Week - May 10, 2017 - Mostly White Town Can Leave Diverse District, Court Says
Education Week - May 10, 2017 - Teacher Residencies Can Help Curb Shortages, Studies Say
Education Week - May 10, 2017 - Do Parents See Math as ‘Less Useful’ Than Reading?
Education Week - May 10, 2017 - Oregon GEAR UP Links Rural Students To Private Colleges
Education Week - May 10, 2017 - 11
Education Week - May 10, 2017 - 12
Education Week - May 10, 2017 - 13
Education Week - May 10, 2017 - 14
Education Week - May 10, 2017 - 15
Education Week - May 10, 2017 - 16
Education Week - May 10, 2017 - 17
Education Week - May 10, 2017 - 2017 Budget Deal Defers Fierce Fights on Education Aid
Education Week - May 10, 2017 - 19
Education Week - May 10, 2017 - Hurdles Remain for Calif. K-12 Funding Formula, Study Says
Education Week - May 10, 2017 - 100 Days: How Three Presidents Stack Up on K-12
Education Week - May 10, 2017 - 22
Education Week - May 10, 2017 - 23
Education Week - May 10, 2017 - By Robert W. Runcie & Antwan Wilson: How We Stopped Sending Students to Jail
Education Week - May 10, 2017 - Letters
Education Week - May 10, 2017 - 26
Education Week - May 10, 2017 - 27
Education Week - May 10, 2017 - TopSchoolJobs Recruitment Marketplace
Education Week - May 10, 2017 - 29
Education Week - May 10, 2017 - 30
Education Week - May 10, 2017 - 31
Education Week - May 10, 2017 - David Jacobson: A Purple Agenda for (Early) Education
Education Week - May 10, 2017 - CW1
Education Week - May 10, 2017 - CW2
Education Week - May 10, 2017 - CW3
Education Week - May 10, 2017 - CW4
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