Education Week - May 9, 2018 - 24

COMMENTARY

20
DOES SCHOOL CHOICE PUT
FREEDOM ABOVE EQUITY?

20
DON'T CALL THE TEACHER
PAY HIKES A RAISE

21
THE EMOTIONAL DRAIN
OF TEACHING

22
LETTERS TO THE EDITOR

The Case for Sex Sexuality Education

T

By Lorena Garcia

he #MeToo movement has
brought to the forefront what
has been a long-standing
concern for women across
various communities: sexual harassment and, more
broadly, gender inequality.
It's critical that we implement sanctions against perpetrators of sexual harassment and that we increase men's
awareness of what is and is not acceptable.
But this movement also highlights the need
for thinking more seriously about how we
teach children and teens about these issues.
Sexual harassment is not merely something that young people will need to contend
with sometime in their distant future when
they are adults in the workforce. Rather, it
is something many of them, especially girls,
are experiencing right now and right in their
schools. Like it or not, schools are formally and
informally communicating lessons to their
students about expectations for men's and
women's sexual conduct. Thus, we should look
to education as a significant avenue to tackle
sexual harassment and gender inequality.
In particular, we need to rethink what is
typically referred to as "sex education." First,
we need to change the very word we use for it
from "sex" education to "sexuality" education.
This education must address not just "the
birds and the bees," but sexual harassment,
including the ways in which it sometimes affects different groups of women and girls.
The conventional wisdom about sexuality
education in schools is that there are two
choices: an abstinence-only curriculum or
a comprehensive curriculum that includes
both abstinence and other topics, such as options for preventing pregnancy and protecting individuals from contracting sexually
transmitted diseases.
While research has largely established
that the latter approach is more effective
than abstinence-only education in delaying sexual activity and reducing adolescent
pregnancy and sexually transmitted diseases, comprehensive sexuality education
would be even more effective if it were even
more comprehensive.
One way to do this is to expand sexuality
education curricula to incorporate lessons
about sexual harassment and gender inequality. A 2011 nationally representative
survey commissioned by the American Association of University Women found that
nearly half of middle and high school students surveyed reported experiencing some
form of sexual harassment during the 20102011 academic year. Girls were more likely
than boys to be sexually harassed, but the
problem was widespread across genders:
56 percent of girls and 40 percent of boys
reported experiencing sexual harassment.
This included in-person sexual harassment,
such as unwelcome touching or sexual jokes,
as well electronic sexual harassment, such
as unsolicited pictures or videos.

I have encountered this high rate of sexual harassment in my own research as well.
When interviewing Latina girls in Chicago
on their sexual experiences, I heard repeated stories of boys groping them in the
hallway or making sexual comments about
their bodies in school.
Teachers and other school employees need
better training in how to identify and stop
sexual harassment. In her 2007 book Dude,
You're a Fag: Masculinity and Sexuality in
High School, sociologist C. J. Pascoe found that
teachers frequently witness the harassment
yet fail to do anything about it, or they may
minimize the seriousness of the incident.
It is also important that school employees
become aware of how unconscious racial biases may influence their perceptions of such
incidents. Research shows that black and

Latinx students face more disciplinary action and are assumed to be more adult-like
and less innocent, and thus in less need of
protection. Researchers, including Monique
Morris and Jody Miller, have documented
how school personnel routinely label black
girls as "loud," or "unladylike" when they are
perceived to fail to conform to white, middleclass expectations of femininity.
Such research demonstrates how racial
and gender stereotypes of girls of color can
inform some school personnel's understanding of their harassment. It can even lead
educators to punish these girls' attempts to
protect themselves or to assume they provoked their own sexual harassment.
The prevalence of sexual harassment in
schools also suggests that sexuality education should be made more comprehensive in

"

I heard repeated stories
of boys groping them in
the hallway or making
sexual comments about
their bodies in school."
stitutions that receive federal funds-can
empower them to demand gender equity in
their schools, as well as in the larger society.
Gender equity can also be examined in the
social studies classroom, where teachers can
facilitate student discussions of gender stereotypes in the media, for example. These
types of classroom activities can also assist
students in developing media-literacy skills,
such as understanding how our engagement
with media relates to social interactions.
Young people are already facing sexual
harassment in their lives, including their
schools. Why not help them take it on now
in a more structured context? It's time
to start these conversations earlier, help
youths recognize harassment, call it out,
and demand that something be done about
it. Maybe this can help us move in a more
concerted effort to stop making sexual harassment and gender inequality a "normal"
aspect of our culture. It's gone on too long.
It's about time we figure it out. n
LORENA GARCIA is an associate professor of
sociology and Latin American and Latino studies
at the University of Illinois at Chicago. She is a
sociologist who studies the intersections of gender,
sexuality, and race and the author of Respect
Yourself, Protect Yourself: Latina Girls and Sexual
Identity (New York University Press, 2012).
Getty

24 | EDUCATION WEEK | May 9, 2018 | www.edweek.org/go/commentary

terms of when it is taught. Instead of treating it as a discrete topic limited to health
class, it should be incorporated into other
aspects of school.
In rethinking sexuality education to address the issue of sexual harassment, for
instance, schools need to think about dresscode policies. By focusing almost exclusively
on girls' attire, school officials often reinforce
the sexual double standard that permits
boys more freedom than girls, thereby reinforcing gender inequality. Instead, schools
should concentrate on training school personnel and students on identifying, preventing, and addressing sexual harassment.
These lessons can also be incorporated
into classroom discussion, where students
could learn and dialogue about relevant
topics in an age-appropriate manner. For
instance, students can explore Title IX
through history class assignments. Students' familiarity with the federal law-
which prohibits sex discrimination in
educational activities and programs by in-


http://www.edweek.org/go/commentary

Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of Education Week - May 9, 2018

Education Week - May 9, 2018
Schools Play Catch Up to Rise in Student Vaping
Teacher Strikes Show Power in Numbers
Educators Battling Class Distractions Of ‘Fortnite Game’
Ronald A. Wolk, Dies at 86; Launched Education Week
Contents
Report Roundup
News in Brief
Study: Language-Learning Ability Is Strong Until Late Teens
Tenn. Struggles to Clean Up Huge Online Testing Mess
Legalities and Politics Collide in Teacher Work Stoppages
Improvement Mode Woven Into ESSA Plans
Wide Swings Reported in Desegregation Data
Derek W. Black: Don’t Call the Teacher Pay Hikes a ‘Raise’
Sarah M. Stitzlein: Does School Choice Put Freedom Above Equity?
H. Richard Milner IV: The Emotional Drain of Teaching
Letters
TopSchoolJobs Recruitment Marketplace
Lorena Garcia: The Case for Sex Sexuality Education
Education Week - May 9, 2018 - Ronald A. Wolk, Dies at 86; Launched Education Week
Education Week - May 9, 2018 - 2
Education Week - May 9, 2018 - Contents
Education Week - May 9, 2018 - News in Brief
Education Week - May 9, 2018 - 5
Education Week - May 9, 2018 - Study: Language-Learning Ability Is Strong Until Late Teens
Education Week - May 9, 2018 - 7
Education Week - May 9, 2018 - Tenn. Struggles to Clean Up Huge Online Testing Mess
Education Week - May 9, 2018 - 9
Education Week - May 9, 2018 - Legalities and Politics Collide in Teacher Work Stoppages
Education Week - May 9, 2018 - 11
Education Week - May 9, 2018 - 12
Education Week - May 9, 2018 - 13
Education Week - May 9, 2018 - 14
Education Week - May 9, 2018 - 15
Education Week - May 9, 2018 - Improvement Mode Woven Into ESSA Plans
Education Week - May 9, 2018 - Wide Swings Reported in Desegregation Data
Education Week - May 9, 2018 - 18
Education Week - May 9, 2018 - 19
Education Week - May 9, 2018 - Sarah M. Stitzlein: Does School Choice Put Freedom Above Equity?
Education Week - May 9, 2018 - H. Richard Milner IV: The Emotional Drain of Teaching
Education Week - May 9, 2018 - Letters
Education Week - May 9, 2018 - TopSchoolJobs Recruitment Marketplace
Education Week - May 9, 2018 - Lorena Garcia: The Case for Sex Sexuality Education
Education Week - May 9, 2018 - CW1
Education Week - May 9, 2018 - CW2
Education Week - May 9, 2018 - CW3
Education Week - May 9, 2018 - CW4
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