Education Week - May 9, 2018 - 17

more than 10 days of school, said
Christopher Ruszkowski, the state's
secretary of education.
That data will help inform the
state's policymaking and improvement process, Ruszkowski said. For
instance, data could help officials
figure out what's behind changes in
a school's overall rating-why one
school went from a B to a D on the
state's grading system over the course
of just a few years, he explained.
"When you have a strong performance management in place, you
want to ask the next set of questions
around what's driving performance,"
Ruszkowski said.
Other states have set up research
partnerships to improve plan implementation, according to DQC's forthcoming analysis. For instance, Tennessee has partnered with outside
academic researchers to help inform
its school improvement vision. The
partnerships run through the Tennessee Education Research Alliance
at Vanderbilt University.

Struggling Schools
And of course, another key aspect
of continuous improvement: How are
states helping schools and districts
support the low-performing schools
and those where vulnerable groups of
students are struggling?
ESSA requires districts to use "evidence based" interventions in those
schools. Educators are supposed to
carefully monitor these strategies to
make sure that they are working.
Fifteen states said they plan to collect data on their interventions and
regularly refresh the evidence base
around them, according to the forthcoming analysis by the Data Quality
Campaign. And six described those
efforts in significant detail in their
ESSA plans.
"You didn't see a lot of school improvement around necessarily shutting a school down or turning it
over [to outside operators] [in ESSA
plans]. It was, 'We have tools and
templates and data and information where we can sit down with the
school and connect them with others
and work with them with this information,'" Kowalski said. "That is
continuous improvement. That's not,
'Pick from a menu of A through D.'
It's doing the hard work of improvement, which really is about digging in
and coming up with a school-specific
plan."
For instance, Ohio is teaming up
with Proving Ground, a research
partnership at the Center for Education Policy Research at Harvard University, to help schools and districts
quickly evaluate their interventions,
according to forthcoming analyses by
the DCQ and EducationCounsel.
And Tennessee plans to take a hard
look at its fastest-improving schools,
so that it can better support schools
that aren't improving as quickly, according to Results for America's analysis. The Volunteer State also has created a "school improvement support
network" to help districts develop
plans to overhaul foundering schools,
PAGE 19 >

Wide Swings Reported in Desegregation Data
Explanations prove scarce

REPORTING PATTERNS

By Andrew Ujifusa
& Alex Harwin
Federal oversight of school desegregation goes
back to the civil rights era-it predates the existence of the U.S. Department of Education itself.
And cases involving the issue remain controversial to this day.
But the volume of such cases-at least as reported by school districts-appears to have fluctuated dramatically in recent years: The number
of districts reporting they were party to such orders or plans nearly doubled from the 2013-14
Civil Rights Data Collection to the 2015-16 collection that was released by the Education Department last month.
That's in sharp contrast to the dramatic,
86 percent drop between the 2011-12 collection
and the 2013-14 collection in the number of districts reporting they had desegregation orders
or plans.
The U.S. Department of Education revised the
definition districts use in reporting school desegregation orders between its 2011-12 data collection and the 2013-14 data collection.
But it's not clear that anyone-including federal education officials-can provide a clear answer as to why those numbers have changed in
the department's biennial report.
Desegregation orders or plans can involve a variety of factors at the school district level, including those involving racial isolation of schools, the
diversity of school faculty members, and classroom conditions and resources.
Many of these orders have been on the books
since the 1960s and 1970s, after the Elementary
and Secondary Education Act was passed but before the Education Department began operations
in 1980. They can be the result of a court mandate, although districts that are the subject of
complaints can also enter into voluntary agreements with the office for civil rights under the
Civil Rights Act of 1964, or with other agencies.
According to the most recent three reports
from the Civil Rights Data Collection:
For the 2011-12 school year, more than 1,200
districts reported they were subject to a desegregation order or had a desegregation plan.
For the 2013-14 year, only 171 districts reported this.
For the 2015-16 year (the data just released),
334 districts reported such orders or plans.
And a closer look at the data shows a trend
that's hard to reconcile with the recent history
of these orders or cases. The 2015-16 data collection reports that 137 districts reported they
were subject to a desegregation order or plan
in 2015-16, but not in 2011-12 or 2013-14, even
though the general landscape and recent history
of desegregation orders makes the phenomenon
hard to explain.

'Cannot Be Directly Compared'
So what changed from 2011-12 to 2013-14, and
then from 2013-14 to 2015-16? One answer: the
definition for desegregation orders and plans
that districts use in deciding whether to check
that box. But it's unclear whether that definition
was changed in a substantive way that could account for the striking rise and fall in the number
of reported cases.
Here is the definition in the CRDC from 2011-12:
"A desegregation plan either ordered by a court or
entered into with the Office for Civil Rights under
Title VI of the Civil Rights Act of 1964."

The U.S. Department of Education reports civil rights
data every other year. During the last three reports,
more than three-quarters of the school districts that
said they had desegregation orders or plans in place
did so only for the 2011-12 report.

75.8%

2011-12 only

9.5 2015-16 only
7.5 All three
3.2 2013-14 & 2015-16
2.9 2011-12 & 2015-16
.8 2013-14 only
.3 2011-12

& 2013-14

SOURCE: Education Week Research Center analysis
of Civil Rights Data, 2018.

The new definition-nearly 150 words long-
went into effect for 2013-14 and expanded the
scope to include any order or plan that involves
other federal or state agencies, and it specifies
what such an order or plan addresses.
An Education Department spokesman in an
email said the definition was changed "to provide
both clarity and additional detail" and that the
department did not consider the change "a 'new'
data element" because it did not alter the underlying type of data being collected. The change
was meant to capture desegregation orders or
voluntary agreements outside of just the courts

"

"The Department of
Education takes no position
on why numbers go down,
up, or remain stable. "
U.S. DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION STATEMENT

MULTIMEDIA: Dig deeper
into how frequently
school districts reported
desegregation orders or
plans. www.edweek.org/
go/desegregation

ucational opportunities they provide on the basis
of race. But only 65 cases are listed-the Justice
Department is not necessarily a plaintiff in all
school desegregation cases-and they are not all
in the same place in the process.
Wayne County schools in Mississippi, for example, are under a consent order in a case dating
back to 1970, while Wicomico County schools in
Maryland reached a settlement agreement with
the Justice Department early in 2017 that lasts
until 2019.
The Education Department spokesman said
it is unlikely "that the Department of Justice
would have the complete numbers of desegregation orders fitting into all categories described by
the CRDC question (i.e. state agencies and state
officials)."

'Dramatic Change'

or the federal office for civil rights. For that reason, the department spokesman said, the CRDC
asked school districts "to report different information than previously requested by the CRDC"
about the issue.
At the same time, the spokesman said that,
"Due to the change in definition, the data submitted for the 2011-12 CRDC cannot be directly
compared to the data submitted for the 2013-14
and 2015-16 collections. The department has not
conducted any across-time analyses."
The spokesman also said, "The Department
of Education takes no position on why numbers
go down, up, or remain stable. The data is selfreported and self-certified by school district superintendents or their designees."
Asked who made the change, which occurred
under the Obama administration, the spokesman would only say that it was "senior leaders
with OCR."
The Department of Justice also has a list of
cases involving school districts that have been
the subject of legal complaints regarding the ed-

It's possible districts back in 2013-14 might
have gotten tripped up by things like the newer
definition's reference to the Department of
Health, Education, and Welfare-a predecessor to the Education Department-said Zoe
Savitsky, the deputy legal director for children's
rights at the Southern Poverty Law Center, who
was a lawyer in the educational opportunities
section of the civil rights division of the U.S. Department of Justice during the 2011-12 school
year. (The Department of Health, Education, and
Welfare included an office for civil rights that
monitored desegregation.)
But ultimately, she said, "I am not sure, looking at these definitions, how this could account
for the dramatic change" for 2013-14, when the
numbers plunged.
Savitsky estimated that there are roughly 300
to 350 active desegregation court orders on the
books. Groups like the NAACP Legal Defense
and Educational Fund also act as plaintiffs, in
addition to the Justice Department. Still, that esPAGE 18 >

EDUCATION WEEK | May 9, 2018 | www.edweek.org | 17


http://www.edweek.org/go/desegregation http://www.edweek.org/go/desegregation http://www.edweek.org

Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of Education Week - May 9, 2018

Education Week - May 9, 2018
Schools Play Catch Up to Rise in Student Vaping
Teacher Strikes Show Power in Numbers
Educators Battling Class Distractions Of ‘Fortnite Game’
Ronald A. Wolk, Dies at 86; Launched Education Week
Contents
Report Roundup
News in Brief
Study: Language-Learning Ability Is Strong Until Late Teens
Tenn. Struggles to Clean Up Huge Online Testing Mess
Legalities and Politics Collide in Teacher Work Stoppages
Improvement Mode Woven Into ESSA Plans
Wide Swings Reported in Desegregation Data
Derek W. Black: Don’t Call the Teacher Pay Hikes a ‘Raise’
Sarah M. Stitzlein: Does School Choice Put Freedom Above Equity?
H. Richard Milner IV: The Emotional Drain of Teaching
Letters
TopSchoolJobs Recruitment Marketplace
Lorena Garcia: The Case for Sex Sexuality Education
Education Week - May 9, 2018 - Ronald A. Wolk, Dies at 86; Launched Education Week
Education Week - May 9, 2018 - 2
Education Week - May 9, 2018 - Contents
Education Week - May 9, 2018 - News in Brief
Education Week - May 9, 2018 - 5
Education Week - May 9, 2018 - Study: Language-Learning Ability Is Strong Until Late Teens
Education Week - May 9, 2018 - 7
Education Week - May 9, 2018 - Tenn. Struggles to Clean Up Huge Online Testing Mess
Education Week - May 9, 2018 - 9
Education Week - May 9, 2018 - Legalities and Politics Collide in Teacher Work Stoppages
Education Week - May 9, 2018 - 11
Education Week - May 9, 2018 - 12
Education Week - May 9, 2018 - 13
Education Week - May 9, 2018 - 14
Education Week - May 9, 2018 - 15
Education Week - May 9, 2018 - Improvement Mode Woven Into ESSA Plans
Education Week - May 9, 2018 - Wide Swings Reported in Desegregation Data
Education Week - May 9, 2018 - 18
Education Week - May 9, 2018 - 19
Education Week - May 9, 2018 - Sarah M. Stitzlein: Does School Choice Put Freedom Above Equity?
Education Week - May 9, 2018 - H. Richard Milner IV: The Emotional Drain of Teaching
Education Week - May 9, 2018 - Letters
Education Week - May 9, 2018 - TopSchoolJobs Recruitment Marketplace
Education Week - May 9, 2018 - Lorena Garcia: The Case for Sex Sexuality Education
Education Week - May 9, 2018 - CW1
Education Week - May 9, 2018 - CW2
Education Week - May 9, 2018 - CW3
Education Week - May 9, 2018 - CW4
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