Education Week - May 9, 2018 - 10

Legalities and Politics Collide
In Teacher Work Stoppages
By Mark Walsh
Teachers have walked off their jobs in five states in
recent weeks and months to protest the impact of low
state education budgets on the classroom, including on
their paychecks.
Have they been engaged in strikes? Aren't strikes by
public employees typically illegal?
The answers to those questions have been obscured
by differing opinions, fast-moving events, and the raw
political power exhibited by the teachers.
"The emphasis of what teachers have been working toward is the condition of the schools, and the
conditions of the classrooms in which they teach,"
said Dale Templeton, the director of collective bargaining and member advocacy for the National
Education Association, whose state affiliates have
been at the center of the recent walkouts in Arizona, Colorado, Kentucky, Oklahoma, and West
Virginia.
"In these states, the advocacy is directed at the legislature," she said.
The teachers' unions' fundamental view is that the
recent job actions do not violate state prohibitions (in
states that have them) against strikes by public employees because the teachers are engaged in political speech and action directed at lawmakers, not the

teachers' direct employers. These public-sector labor
matters are all generally questions of state instead of
federal law.
"The educators are arguing that the legislatures,
over many years, are the ones who created these conditions," said Alice O'Brien, the general counsel of the
NEA. "So it's not a strike as defined in many labor
laws as a dispute between the employees and the local
school district."
In legal briefs filed with the U.S. Supreme Court in
the labor law case Janus v. American Federation of
State, County, and Municipal Employees, Council 31, in
which a ruling is pending, the National Right to Work
Foundation says 27 states have right to work laws "for
the private and/or public sector," while AFSCME says
"26 states prohibit fair-share fees or public-sector collective bargaining completely."

Conflicting Views
Of course, there are some differing views on the
issue. In West Virginia, where teachers won a $2,000
raise after their statewide walkout in February and
March, state schools Superintendent Steve Paine had
warned teachers against the job action.
"Work stoppages by public employees are not lawful in West Virginia and will have a negative im-

Wave of Teacher Strikes Shows Collective Power of the Profession
an upcoming U.S. Supreme Court
decision.
With Arizona teachers seemingly
inking another win-Gov. Doug
Ducey signed a 20 percent pay raise
into law alongside an education
funding increase last week-eyes
are turning toward North Carolina,
where teachers are preparing for a
May 16 walkout.
Here are summaries of some of the
strikes' implications for policy, salaries, and the teachers' unions.

Effects on Salaries and Funding
More than anything else, the
strikes have brought widespread
attention to the fact that teachers
in Arizona, Oklahoma, and West
Virginia had among the lowest takehome pay in the country.
That the strikes have occurred in
states with histories of tax cuts is no
surprise. The bulk of school spending
goes to personnel, and so over a time,
a smaller spending pie translates
into diminishing pay. (Some economists have also noted the tendency of
districts to hire more aides and nonclassroom staff as a factor in low pay.)
One of the striking teachers' innovations, particularly in Arizona and
Oklahoma, has been to make the
link between teacher pay and overall
school funding explicit, policy experts
note.
"Your run-of-the-mill teacher strike
revolves almost squarely around
salaries," said Michael Hansen, the
director of the Brown Center on Education Policy at the Brookings Institution, a Washington think tank. "In
Oklahoma, where they got half of

what they were asking for on salaries, but kept striking [for education
funding]-to me, that feels qualitatively different."
What's not clear is whether the
shorter-term salary hikes they've
won in the states will help shake
down solutions to long-term, structural budget issues.
Anti-tax fervor is so prevalent in
Arizona, Colorado, and Oklahoma
that each state makes passing legislation to raise taxes a political odyssey. And while national polls show
that a majority of Americans support
the teachers' efforts in theory, that's
a far cry from favoring higher taxes
in practice.
Largely lost in the debate about
teacher pay, meanwhile, is that state
education budgets are increasingly
being allocated to the rising costs of

10 | EDUCATION WEEK | May 9, 2018 | www.edweek.org

health care and pensions, putting
downward pressure on salaries, said
Martin West, an associate professor
of education at the Harvard Graduate School of Education.
Balancing those competing priorities poses no easy solutions, but as
the Kentucky walkouts proved, attempts to alter things like pensions
without consulting with teachers
first are likely to be met with consequences.
"It's fair to say that if you're a competent or especially a good teacher
and looked at your paycheck, you feel
massively underpaid, and I've got no
quarrel with that," said Frederick
Hess, the director of education policy
studies at the American Enterprise
Institute, a right-leaning think tank.
"It's also true that these teachers cost
a boatload more than they realize to
GENESIS OF A STRIKE
Texts from West Virginia
activist Ryan
Frankenberry, in green,
to another organizer
show the development of
the Facebook page that
helped fuel a successful
strike in the state.

Courtesy of Ryan Frankenberry

CONTINUED FROM PAGE 1

taxpayers" when benefits are taken
into account.
Policy experts have struggled to
explain why most of the strikes have
occurred in states where unions are
weaker. It could be a function of pay
decisions being more local in stronger
union states, higher salaries overall,
or possibly because states such as
California, New York, and Oregon
tend to lean Democratic and thus
unions there enjoy better relationships with lawmakers.

Narrow Policy Focus
One of the most conspicuous elements of the walkouts is their comparatively narrow focus on school
spending, not on other education
policies.
It is a strong contrast to the 2012
Chicago strike, in which issues of
teacher seniority and evaluation
were front and center, and a sharp
turn away from the dominant focus
of the past decade.
Evaluation of teachers, in part
based on test scores, was unquestionably a central concern of the
Obama administration. And as the
issue gained momentum in states,
it was paired with the not-so-subtle
implication, fueled by the mainstream media, that too many teachers weren't up to the job.
The new federal law, the Every
Student Succeeds Act, undid requirements related to evaluations,
leaving those decisions up to states.
And by focusing on the much more
traditional issue of wages, the recent
wave of teacher activism could fuel
retrenchment.
Notably, the Oklahoma and West
Virginia lawmakers who have cut

deals with striking teachers haven't
tried to attach any performance-related strings to them.
"Even supporters [of teacher-performance policies] want to keep those
efforts under the radar screen, and
that's why you're not seeing people
connecting the issue of teacher compensation and performance in this
outbreak of labor unrest," West said.
The tenor of media coverage has
changed, too. If it hasn't entirely
avoided the temptation to sentimentalize teachers, it has nevertheless
succeeded in illustrating the hard
realities that teachers in the states
with strikes have faced: disintegrating classrooms, decades-old textbooks, and the necessity of holding
second jobs.
The political implications of the
activism, meanwhile, are still unfolding. Democrats are hoping to
capitalize on the momentum among
teachers in the midterm elections,
but teacher activism doesn't always
fall along traditional political lines.
Take Oklahoma teachers, who lean
Republican but clearly don't hold to
the state party's anti-tax orthodoxy.
In a sense, the striking teachers are
displaying their own distinct and independent breed of populism: Automation and trade may not be taking
their jobs, but they feel equally left
out of the post-2008 economic recovery.
"We've spent 18 months talking
about working-class and middleclass Americans who have been overlooked. If you're thinking about those
folks, teachers are sort of exhibits
1-A," Hess said.
It's a question few have bothered to
ask yet: Are the strikes the beginning
of a long-awaited and long-promised


http://www.edweek.org

Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of Education Week - May 9, 2018

Education Week - May 9, 2018
Schools Play Catch Up to Rise in Student Vaping
Teacher Strikes Show Power in Numbers
Educators Battling Class Distractions Of ‘Fortnite Game’
Ronald A. Wolk, Dies at 86; Launched Education Week
Contents
Report Roundup
News in Brief
Study: Language-Learning Ability Is Strong Until Late Teens
Tenn. Struggles to Clean Up Huge Online Testing Mess
Legalities and Politics Collide in Teacher Work Stoppages
Improvement Mode Woven Into ESSA Plans
Wide Swings Reported in Desegregation Data
Derek W. Black: Don’t Call the Teacher Pay Hikes a ‘Raise’
Sarah M. Stitzlein: Does School Choice Put Freedom Above Equity?
H. Richard Milner IV: The Emotional Drain of Teaching
Letters
TopSchoolJobs Recruitment Marketplace
Lorena Garcia: The Case for Sex Sexuality Education
Education Week - May 9, 2018 - Ronald A. Wolk, Dies at 86; Launched Education Week
Education Week - May 9, 2018 - 2
Education Week - May 9, 2018 - Contents
Education Week - May 9, 2018 - News in Brief
Education Week - May 9, 2018 - 5
Education Week - May 9, 2018 - Study: Language-Learning Ability Is Strong Until Late Teens
Education Week - May 9, 2018 - 7
Education Week - May 9, 2018 - Tenn. Struggles to Clean Up Huge Online Testing Mess
Education Week - May 9, 2018 - 9
Education Week - May 9, 2018 - Legalities and Politics Collide in Teacher Work Stoppages
Education Week - May 9, 2018 - 11
Education Week - May 9, 2018 - 12
Education Week - May 9, 2018 - 13
Education Week - May 9, 2018 - 14
Education Week - May 9, 2018 - 15
Education Week - May 9, 2018 - Improvement Mode Woven Into ESSA Plans
Education Week - May 9, 2018 - Wide Swings Reported in Desegregation Data
Education Week - May 9, 2018 - 18
Education Week - May 9, 2018 - 19
Education Week - May 9, 2018 - Sarah M. Stitzlein: Does School Choice Put Freedom Above Equity?
Education Week - May 9, 2018 - H. Richard Milner IV: The Emotional Drain of Teaching
Education Week - May 9, 2018 - Letters
Education Week - May 9, 2018 - TopSchoolJobs Recruitment Marketplace
Education Week - May 9, 2018 - Lorena Garcia: The Case for Sex Sexuality Education
Education Week - May 9, 2018 - CW1
Education Week - May 9, 2018 - CW2
Education Week - May 9, 2018 - CW3
Education Week - May 9, 2018 - CW4
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_06152022
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_06082022
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_06012022
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_05112022
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_05042022
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_04272022
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_04132022
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_04062022
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_03302022
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_03232022
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_03162022
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_03092022
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_03022022
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_02232022
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_02162022
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_02092022
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_02022022
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_01192022
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_01122022
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_01052022
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_12082021
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_12012021
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_11242021
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_11172021
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_11032021
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_10272021
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_10202021
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_10112021
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_10062021
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_09292021
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_09222021
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_09152021
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_09082021
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_09012021
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_08252021
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_08182021
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_07142021
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_06162021
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_06092021
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_06022021
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_04282021
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_05122021
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_05052021
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_04212021
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_04142021
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_03312021
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_03242021
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_03172021
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_03102021
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_03032021
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_02242021
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_02172021
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_02102021
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_02032021
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_01202021
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_01132021
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_01062021
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_12092020
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_12022020
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_11252020
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_11182020
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_11042020
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_10282020
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_10212020
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_10142020
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_10072020
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_09302020
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_09232020
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_09162020
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_09092020
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_09022020
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_08262020
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_08192020
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_07152020
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_06172020
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_06102020
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_06042020
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_06032020
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_05132020
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_05062020
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_04292020
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_04082020
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_04012020
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_03252020
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_03182020
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_03112020
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_03042020
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_02262020
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_02192020
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_02122020
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_02052020
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_01222020
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_01152020
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_01082020
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_12112019
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_12042019
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_11272019
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_11132019
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_11062019
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_10302019
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_10232019
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_10162019
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_10092019
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_10022019
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_09252019
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_09182019
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_09112019
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_09042019
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_08282019
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_08212019
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_07172019
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_06192019
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_06122019
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_06032019
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_05152019
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_05082019
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_05012019
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_04242019
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_04172019
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_04102019
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_04032019
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_03202019
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_03132019
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_03062019
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_02272019
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_02202019
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_02132019
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_02062019
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_01232019
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_01162019
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_01092019
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_12122018
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_12052018
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_11282018
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_11142018
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_11072018
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_10312018
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_10242018
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_10172018
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_10102018
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_10032018
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_09262018
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_09192018
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_09122018
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_09052018
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_08292018
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_08222018
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_07182018
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_06202018
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_06132018
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_06062018
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_05302018
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_05232018
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_05162018
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_05092018
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_05022018
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_04252018
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_04182018
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_04112018
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_04042018
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_03212018
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_03072018
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_sr_03072018
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_02282018
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_02212018
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_02142018
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_02072018
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_01242018
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_01172018
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_01102018
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_12132017
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_11292017
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_11152017
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_11082017
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_11012017
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_10252017
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_10182017
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_10112017
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_10042017
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_09272017
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_09202017
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_09132017
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_09062017
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_08302017
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_08232017
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_07192017
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_06212017
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_06142017
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_06072017
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_05312017
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_05242017
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_05172017
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_05102017
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_04262017specialreport
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_04262017
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_04192017
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_04052017
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_03292017
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_03222017
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_03082017
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_03012017
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_02222017
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_02152017
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_02082017
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_01252017
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_01252017specialreport
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_01182017
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_01042017
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_12142016
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_12142016v2
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_11302016
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_11162016
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_11092016
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_11022016
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_10262016
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_10192016
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_10122016
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_10052016
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_09282016
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_09212016
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_09142016
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_09072016
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_08312016
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_08242016
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_08032016
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_08032016
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_07202016
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_01112017
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_06082016
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/tc_06092016
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/dc_06022016
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_06012016
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_05182016
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_sr_05112016
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_05112016
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_04272016
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_04202016
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_04132016
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_03302016
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_sr_03302016
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_03232016
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_03162016
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_03092016
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_02242016
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_sr_02242016
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_02172016
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_02102016
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_sr_01272016
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_01272016
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_01202016
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_sr_01132016
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_01132016
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/qc_01072016
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_01062016
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_12092015
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_12022015
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_sr_11112015
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_11112015
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_11042015
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_10282015
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_10212015
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_sr_10212015
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_10142015
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_10072015
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_09302015
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_sr_09302015
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_09232015
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_09162015
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_09092015
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_08262015
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_08192015
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_08052015
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_07082015
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_06102015
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/tc_06112015
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/dc_06042015
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_06032015
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_05202015
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_sr_05132015
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_05132015
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_05062015
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_04222015
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_sr_04152015
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_04152015
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_04012015
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_03252015
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_sr_03182015
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_03182015
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_03042015
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_02252015
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_sr_02252015
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_sr_02182015
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_02182015
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_02042015
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_01282015
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_01212015
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_sr_01212015
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_01142015
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/qc_01082015
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_01072015
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_12102014
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_12032014
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_11122014
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_sr_11122014
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_11052014
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_10292014
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_10222014
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_sr_10222014
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_10152014
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_10082014
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_sr_10012014
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_10012014
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_09242014
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_09172014
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_09102014
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_08272014
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_08202014
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_sr_08202014
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_08062014
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_07092014
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_06112014_v2
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_06112014
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/dc_06052014
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_06042014
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_05212014
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_05142014
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_05072014
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_sr_04232014
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_04232014
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_04162014
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_04022014
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_03262014
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/tc_20140313
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_03122014
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_sr_03052014
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_03052014
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_02262014
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_sr_02192014
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_02192014
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_01292014_v2
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_02052014
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_01292014
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_01222014
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_01152014
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/qc_01092014
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_01082014
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_12112013
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_12042013
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_11132013
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_11062013
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_sr_10302013
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_10302013
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_10232013
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_10162013
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_10092013
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_sr_10022013
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_10022013
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_09252013
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_09182013
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_09112013
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_08282013
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_sr_08212013
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_08212013
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_08072013
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_07102013
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_06122013
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/dc_06062013
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_06052013
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_sr_05222013
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_05222013
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_05152013
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_05082013
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_sr_04242013
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_04242013
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_04172013
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_04032013
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_03272013
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_03132013
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/tc_20130314
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_03062013
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_02272013
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_sr_02202013
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_02202013
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_sr_02062013
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_02062013
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_01302013
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_01232013
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_01162013
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/qc_01102013
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_01092013
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_12122012
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_12052012
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_sr_11142012
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_11142012
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_11072012
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_10312012
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_sr_10242012
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_10242012
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_10172012
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_10102012
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_10032012
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_09262012
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_09192012
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_09122012
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_08292012
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_sr_08222012
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_08222012
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_20120829
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_sr_08292012
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_20120822_v2
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_20120822
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_test
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/diplomascount_2012issue34
https://www.nxtbookmedia.com