Education Week - May 8, 2019 - 11

CONSTITUTION HAS LIMITED REACH IN SCHOOLS
Early U.S. educational philosophers linked the provision of common schools to the
production of a healthy, well-informed citizenry. Although civics has lately taken a
back seat to reading, math, and testing regimes, most parents probably share that
goal today.
But it would likely come as a surprise to many of them to learn that enrolling their
children in schools also means putting them in a place that's legally permitted to
curtail some of their children's constitutional rights.
"Constitutional rights assume particular contours within the nation's schools that
are different than when minors are in the public park across from schools," said
Justin Driver, whose recent book, The Schoolhouse Gate, analyzes the complicated
history of U.S. Supreme Court rulings on student rights.
Adding to the confusion, the court's rulings lay out general principles rather than
clear road maps or checklists for administrators, teachers, and students to follow.
Here's a look at five key constitutional amendments and how they've been
transformed in schools.

Former Victory Preparatory Academy student Beverly Felipe, 19, is now a
freshman at Johnson & Wales University in Denver. Felipe's father was told to
withdraw her from the high school after she took part in the protest. She
eventually graduated from another Denver high school.

1

st

Mary Flores, left, and her husband Joel R. Flores, far right, were banned from the
Victory Preparatory Academy campus after they wrote about the 2017 protest at
the Denver-area high school for their Spanish-language newspaper, La Prensa
de Colorado. Their son, Emilio, center, a graduating senior at the school, said it
pained him when his parents couldn't attend his soccer games.

AMENDMENT

This is the amendment everyone remembers. But it wasn't until 1969, in the famous Tinker
v. Des Moines ruling, that the Supreme Court recognized that it also applies to schools.
The court said students could engage in political speech at school by wearing black
armbands to protest the Vietnam War.
However, other Supreme Court rulings have constrained students' speech. Administrators
have some leeway to censor student-newspaper articles, for example. And students can
be restricted on speech that's considered vulgar or lewd, promotes drug use, causes a
"material and substantial disruption" to school, or infringes on another student's rights.
The last two pieces remain especially fuzzy, especially in this day and age of social media.

In their letter
to school
administrators,
at right, Victory
Preparatory
Academy's seniors
and juniors outline
their concerns
with the school's
practices.

All but absent from the growing civics
education conversation is the recognition
that everyday interactions in schools also
inform students' civic development, and
that often those interactions tell a totally
different story about individuals' rights
from the government textbooks used in
class.

In 2019 alone, four black girls in Binghamton,
N.Y., were allegedly strip-searched by white school
officials. In New Jersey, a high schooler claimed she
was threatened with suspension for wearing a traditional Nigerian head wrap. And a California student
sued the Fresno district after officials prohibited her
from wearing a "Make America Great Again" hat.
Such incidents have fueled loud, contentious, and
emotional debates about student discipline, safety,
and racism. They also point to a weakness at the
heart of public schools' civic mission.
"If students don't live in an environment that respects and fosters an appreciation of their constitutional rights, the danger is that they'll grow up
into adults that don't understand and appreciate
constitutional rights," said David L. Hudson Jr.,
an associate professor of legal practice at Belmont
University in Tennessee and a longtime scholar of
students' free-speech rights. "And I think that would
be tragic for the country."
There's an inherent tension in the idea that
schools should both teach civics and model them.
By definition, schools have to balance students'
rights with their own interest in creating an environment where students can learn, which is why
they can prohibit students from interrupting teachers or bringing weapons to school. But as the famous 1969 U.S. Supreme Court ruling in the Tinker
v. Des Moines case established, students do maintain some constitutional rights.
The problem, argues Justin Driver, a professor of
law at the University of Chicago, is that in the subsequent half-century of rulings, the Supreme Court
has tilted the balance away from students.

FREE
SPEECH

4

th

AMENDMENT

Students don't always have to be given their Miranda warning when being questioned by police officers at school, he noted. They can have their lockers searched and be required to take drug tests to
participate in clubs or sports. They can be paddled
in more than a dozen states.
In effect, he said, schools can and often do legally
engage in practices that can seem inconsistent, if
not hypocritical, to students-at a crucial moment
in their civic development.
"This is their first sustained exposure to a governmental entity for sustained periods of time," Driver
said. "If schools are dishonoring constitutional
rights, it teaches them very negative things about
the government and the constitutional order as a
whole."

Viewed through that lens, the situation at
Victory Preparatory Academy presents two
distinct, though interrelated questions.
First, did administrators' decision to send all the
students home for a day-and require others to
withdraw-pass legal muster?
And second: Did it pass civic muster?
Founded in 2013, VPA serves about 140 mostly
Hispanic students, many of whom are learning English or qualify for school meals. Though not part of
a national charter school network, the school shares
DNA with other charters that pair rigorous academics with school uniforms and a strict code of conduct.
The students bringing the lawsuit largely agreed
that the school's academics were rigorous. They also
described the learning environment as stifling.
"For me, it was constantly being, not pressured,
but having to be focused entirely on education and
not having those other extracurricular activities,
spirit week, homecoming," said Emilio Flores, an
11th grader at the time. "They were really strict on
giving out [discipline] referrals and didn't care if you
had a reason."
Education Week interviewed four former VPA

SEARCH &
SEIZURE

The government and the police generally can't search homes or belongings unless they
have a warrant or "probable cause" that someone committed a crime. But the Supreme
Court has ruled that students don't get the same level of protection.
School officials generally only need to have a "reasonable suspicion" to search students'
belongings or their person, and it's not always clear where a search suddenly moves from
permissible to intrusive.
The court also ruled that it's OK to require students to take a random drug test, even if
there's no evidence that they are using drugs.

5

th

AMENDMENT

SELFINCRIMINATION

Do students have the right to "plead the Fifth" when being questioned at school by
law-enforcement officials? In light of recent concerns about the racial impact of student
discipline and safety concerns, it's an increasingly pressing question.
In 2011, the Supreme Court found that the Fifth Amendment rights of a 13-year-old
student interrogated by a police officer at school were violated because he wasn't warned
of his right to remain silent. But the court didn't clarify whether this applied to all minors,
or whether school resource officers must also read students their rights.

8

th

AMENDMENT

CRUEL &
UNUSUAL
PUNISHMENT

The U.S. military outlawed corporal punishment in 1862, and all states had ended it as a
judge-ordered punishment by the early 1970s. But it's still permissible to hit students in
more than a dozen states.
The Supreme Court has repeatedly upheld paddling.

14

th

AMENDMENT

DUE
PROCESS

When students land in hot water, they don't get the same procedural protections as adult
citizens do. Typically, they only receive minimal due-process rights. They need only be told
what they did wrong and given a chance to respond; they do not need to be given anything
in writing before being punished.

PAGE 12 >
-STEPHEN SAWCHUK

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EDUCATION WEEK | May 8, 2019 | www.edweek.org | 11



Education Week - May 8, 2019

Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of Education Week - May 8, 2019

Education Week - May 8, 2019
CITIZEN Z: How Schools Undercut Their Own Civics Lessons
A Slow Build for Reporting On ESSA Data
The Battle Over Who Gets Into Elite Public Schools
News in Brief
Report Roundup
Girls Outshine Boys on Test of Tech, Engineering Skills
Career-Tech Ed Drawing Higher Achievers, College Goers
House Democrats Seek $4.4 Billion Ed. Dept. Increase
Trump Meets With Teacher Honorees, Even as Two Boycott
Lindsay J. Friedman: The Enduring Relevance of Holocaust Education
Kathy Liu Sun: How to Solve Our Math Worksheet Problem
Letters
TopSchoolJobs Recruitment Marketplace
Education Week - May 8, 2019 - The Battle Over Who Gets Into Elite Public Schools
Education Week - May 8, 2019 - 2
Education Week - May 8, 2019 - 3
Education Week - May 8, 2019 - Report Roundup
Education Week - May 8, 2019 - 5
Education Week - May 8, 2019 - Girls Outshine Boys on Test of Tech, Engineering Skills
Education Week - May 8, 2019 - Career-Tech Ed Drawing Higher Achievers, College Goers
Education Week - May 8, 2019 - 8
Education Week - May 8, 2019 - 9
Education Week - May 8, 2019 - 10
Education Week - May 8, 2019 - 11
Education Week - May 8, 2019 - 12
Education Week - May 8, 2019 - 13
Education Week - May 8, 2019 - House Democrats Seek $4.4 Billion Ed. Dept. Increase
Education Week - May 8, 2019 - Trump Meets With Teacher Honorees, Even as Two Boycott
Education Week - May 8, 2019 - 16
Education Week - May 8, 2019 - 17
Education Week - May 8, 2019 - Lindsay J. Friedman: The Enduring Relevance of Holocaust Education
Education Week - May 8, 2019 - 19
Education Week - May 8, 2019 - Letters
Education Week - May 8, 2019 - TopSchoolJobs Recruitment Marketplace
Education Week - May 8, 2019 - 22
Education Week - May 8, 2019 - 23
Education Week - May 8, 2019 - 24
Education Week - May 8, 2019 - CW1
Education Week - May 8, 2019 - CW2
Education Week - May 8, 2019 - CW3
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