Education Week - May 6, 2015 - (Page 25)

Marriage Issue Gets Full Airing At High Court By Mark Walsh Washington Two very different ways of thinking about child-rearing permeated the U.S. Supreme Court arguments last week over whether the Constitution requires states to license or recognize samesex marriages. "When you change the definition of marriage to delink the idea that we're binding children with their biological mom and dad, that has consequences," said John J. Bursch, a special assistant attorney general of Michigan, who defended his state's ban on same-sex marriages, as well as those of Kentucky, Ohio, and Tennessee. The nationally watched case has potential ramifications for parental and family rights in the K-12 context. The four states defending their laws before the justices on April 28 in Obergefell v. Hodges (No. 14-556) argue that keeping a traditional definition of marriage ensures that when couples procreate, their children will be born into a stable family unit, and that the promotion of family stability is a legitimate state interest. But lawyers for those challenging the laws- and for President Barack Obama's administration-stressed that many children currently with same-sex parents do not have the full protection of the law because their states bar joint adoption by two parents of the same sex. "You have hundreds of thousands of children raised in same-sex households now," U.S. Solicitor General Donald B. Verrilli Jr. said. "And what [the states'] position and [states'] caution argument leads you to is the conclusion that those hundreds of thousands of children don't get the stabilizing structure and the many benefits of marriage." 'Child Outcomes' Several of the gay couples challenging their states' laws seek to marry or have their marriages from elsewhere recognized so they may jointly adopt children in their household and be sure of equal rights in school decisions. (See Education Week, April 22, 2015.) Those school issues largely went unaired during the 2½ hours of arguments last week. But there were references to the trial held in the Michigan case, in which both sides presented experts who discussed conflicting studies about the educational outcomes of children in samesex households. Mary L. Bonauto, a Boston lawyer representing same-sex families, told the justices that "these issues have been aired repeatedly, and there is, as you all have heard, a social science consensus that there's nothing about the sex or sexual orientation of the parent that is going to affect child outcomes." Justice Anthony M. Kennedy threw a bit of cold water on the idea of weighing such evidence. "It seems to me ... that we should not consult at all the social science on this, because it's too new," he said. Scalia: Who Should Decide? The justices appeared as divided as they were two years ago in United States v. Windsor, when they ruled 5-4 to strike down a key provision of the federal Defense of Marriage Act and require the federal government to recognize same-sex marriages from the states that permit them. Justice Antonin Scalia, who dissented in Windsor and once wrote in a dissent in another gayrights case that "many Americans do not want persons who openly engage in homosexual conduct ... as teachers in their children's schools," was less antagonistic from the bench last week. "The issue, of course, is not whether there should be same-sex marriage, but who should decide the point," he said. Justice Elena Kagan, who was in the majority in Windsor, pressed Mr. Bursch on the states' arguments that limiting marriage to opposite-sex couples was to promote responsibility for children. "This is what I think is difficult for some people with your argument, is that it's hard to see how permitting same-sex marriage discourages people from being bonded with their biological children," she said. Justice Kennedy wrote the opinion for the majority in Windsor, one in which he said the federal law, known as doma, created a differentiation that made same-sex marriages unequal and "humiliates tens of thousands of children now being raised by same-sex couples." Both sides in the new case view Justice Kennedy as the key vote. Last week, he had concerns for both sides. He noted that opposite-sex marriage has been an institution of societies for thousands of years, while same-sex marriage has been permitted in some states for only about a dozen years. "This definition [of opposite-sex marriage] has been with us for millennia," he said to Mr. Bursch. "It's very difficult for the court to say, 'Oh well, we know better.' " But later, he questioned how same-sex marriage harms "traditional marriage." "Same-sex couples say, 'Of course, we understand the nobility and the sacredness of the marriage,' " said Justice Kennedy. " 'We know we can't procreate, but we want the other attributes of it in order to show that we, too, have a dignity that can be fulfilled.' " A decision in the case is expected by late June. Shelly Bailes, 74, left, and her wife, Ellen Pontac, 73, of Davis, Calif., kiss in front of the U.S. Supreme Court in Washington. The court heard arguments last month on whether states can be required to license or recognize same-sex marriage, an issue with implications for schools where the children of same-sex couples are enrolled. Some Districts Supporting LGBT Parents CONTINUED FROM PAGE 22 are raising about 58,000 adopted and foster children. Almost half of those children or 46 percent were being raised by married same-sex parents. Many districts are working to build bonds with such families. After more students in the San Francisco school district began publicly acknowledging that they had LGBT parents, that district asked students about their parents' sexual orientation on its Youth Risk Behavior Survey in 2011 and 2013. Gentle Blythe, the district's chief communications officer, explained that the 57,000-student district wanted to ensure that the school system's programming was inclusive of the needs of same-sex parents and their children. Today, however, Ms. Blythe said the district no longer asks that question since it could be perceived as an inquiry regarding parental behaviors. Instead, she said the district is focused on developing an inclusive curriculum and school culture. In November, for example, more than 190 people attended the district's fourth annual LGBT Families Dinner, which celebrates such families and their allies. Ms. Blythe noted that some San Francisco elementary schools have informally become a "big draw" for same-sex couples. She said word-ofmouth spread that certain schools are a "great place for same-sex parents to send their children." In Washington, a city where the Williams Institute estimates that more than 8 percent of same-sex couples are raising children, Diana K. Bruce, director of health and wellness for the District of Columbia public school system, said the district simply continued with its "obligation to treat all children and parents fairly" when same-sex marriage became legal in the city in 2010. Ms. Bruce said the district held "listening sessions" in 2011 with LGBTheaded families to inform its policies and programming. "A lot of the families we spoke with wanted to be normalized in the school community," Ms. Bruce said. "Many were able to do it. Serving on the PTA. Running fundraisers." But not all school districts are as far along as San Francisco and the District of Columbia, in meeting the needs of LGBT parents. The newly formed Stonewall National Education Project is assisting public school districts in establishing policies and programs to protect and support LGBT families and their children. Offering Support The Stonewall National Museum and Archive in Fort Lauderdale, Fla., launched the initiative in 2013, with a three-day symposium. It gathered 60 educators from 14 school districts, including some from New York City, Los Angeles, and Washington. About 160 education leaders representing 49 school districts are expected to attend the project's third conference in Fort Lauderdale May 13. Jessica Herthel, the Stonewall National Education Project's director, said this year's conference will focus on providing educators with specific strategies to implement new programs and changes to school policies, like broadening anti-discrimination rules to include gender identity. Ms. Herthel said the project wants educators to learn how to craft their message to garner support for LGBT policies and programs. "The magic of the Stonewall National Education Project is not in generating content," Ms. Herthel said. "The magic is having the school districts come together in our house and help them build year-round partnerships." EDUCATION WEEK | May 6, 2015 | www.edweek.org | 25 Cliff Owen/AP http://www.edweek.org

Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of Education Week - May 6, 2015

Education Week - May 6, 2015
Some Balk as Testing Rolls Ahead
Nevada Exams Hit Tech Trouble
Science Standards Pop Up in Districts
Undocumented Students Strive to Adapt
State Takeover Gives Mass. District a Fresh Start
Contents
News in Brief
Report Roundup
Chicago Schools Probe Prompts AASA to End Alliance With Firm
Researchers Target Ways to Design Better Mathematics Text Materials
GED Revisions Spur Bumpy Year for Equivalency Exams
After Baltimore Unrest, Students and Educators Seek Understanding
DIGITAL DIRECTIONS: New Research Probes Frontiers of Tech Learning
Blogs of the Week
Efforts to Change Federal Aid Formulas Prove Tricky
New Research Emerges On LGBT Parents
Advocates for Special Ed., Gifted Weigh Details in ESEA Rewrite Bill
Blogs of the Week
Marriage Issue Gets Full Airing at High Court
Letters
TopSchoolJobs Recruitment Marketplace

Education Week - May 6, 2015

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http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_09262012
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_09192012
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http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_test
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http://www.nxtbookMEDIA.com