Education Week - May 2, 2018 - 18

COMMENTARY

Why I'm Against Innovation in Education

I

By Mike Schmoker
'm against innovation in education-as currently conceived and
conducted. I'm not against smallscale educational experimentation, where new methods are
tested, refined, and proved before
they are widely implemented. But
I'm against our inordinate obsession with what's new at the expense of what
works-with exceedingly superior (if much
older) evidence-based practices. The difference in impact isn't slight: Michael Fullan,
an international authority on education, believes that our best high-leverage methods
produce "stunningly powerful consequences"
in schools. And they will do so, as professionaldevelopment expert Bruce Joyce has noted,
"very rapidly." Our willingness to recognize
and act on this difference may be the central
educational issue of our time.
Consider John Hattie's research on the
power of formative evaluation and feedback.
His exhaustive studies confirm what we've known since the
1960s: that ongoing monitoring and adjustments to teaching,
informed by feedback, may have more impact on learning than
any other instructional factor.
Doug Lemov concurs. In his mega-best-selling book, Teach
Like a Champion, he identifies "checking for understanding"
as the pivotal element in an effective lesson.
I know teachers in two different schools in the same district
whose adoption of these methods contributed to enormous
one-year, whole-school gains on their state writing exam. After
learning of these incredible gains, I joined these teachers to advocate the expansion of their efforts in their district-but their

Getty

successes were entirely ignored. To our astonishment, their
respective school leaders opted to pursue a string of popular-
but weak or unproven-innovations, including SmartBoard
training and standards-based grading.
Or take literacy itself. Evidence abounds that significant
increases in subject-area reading and writing will have a profound impact on students' content knowledge, intellectual capacity, and academic achievement. At a struggling school in
Brawley, Calif., scores soared when the principal created a
schoolwide program that required students to read and write in
every discipline, including physical education. Students' passing rates in English/language arts on Smarter Balanced tests

rose by 34 percentage points; math passing
rates rose by nearly 17 percentage points-all
in just two years. Would any sensible person
prefer that the school had instituted a "genius
hour"? Or differentiated instruction, which is
not, despite its popularity, an evidence-based
intervention?
Or what of New York City's New Dorp High
School? With the struggling school in danger
of closure by city officials, the principal decided to go all in on exceedingly traditional
instruction in reading, public speaking, and
writing in every discipline. In just two years,
the school made immense gains and is now
a mecca for visitors. As author Peg Tyre explained in a 2012 article in The Atlantic, the
school's success was not a function of innovation or experimentation, but of old, proven
instructional "fundamentals that schools
have devalued or forgotten" (my emphasis).
As Tyre points out, the fundamentals-first instructional model on which New Dorp based
its program "would not be unfamiliar to nuns
who taught in Catholic schools circa 1950."
And then there's the simple power of curriculum. Nothing
cutting-edge here. Yet meta-analytic evidence from Robert
Marzano and other researchers indicates that a coherent curriculum-if implemented-has more impact on learning than
any other in-school factor. Not long ago, I attended an award
ceremony for a school in Arizona that ranked in the top three
for statewide gains in math. They achieved this in a two-year
period, a direct result of having teams of teachers map out, for
the first time, what they would teach in each math course, by
grading period. I'm friends with an elementary school principal
in Boston who persuaded his faculty members to do the same
for every course at his high-poverty school. Scores rose, in his

Want to Support Public Schools? Stop Cutting Taxes

A

By Nicholas Brake
s a district superintendent, I am often asked
the question by community leaders about
how business can best
support public schools.
For a long time, I answered this question
by thinking about partnerships, philanthropy, or other programmatic ways businesses and communities can help public
schools. But lately, my answer has tended
more toward the policy front. I tell them the
best way to support education is to support
a fiscal policy that focuses on investments
rather than taxes.
In the Kentucky district I serve, where
nearly three out of four students live in poverty, I have seen the ill effects of the growing inequality and eroding middle class in
our society. In the five years that I have
served as superintendent, our district has
had to do more with less to serve the needs
of our students and families.
Last month, Kentucky lawmakers overrode the governor's veto to pass a controversial tax overhaul that unfairly targets
middle- and lower-income Kentuckians
with a service-based consumption tax while
cutting taxes on the corporations and the
most affluent. The new budget uses a modest revenue increase in per-pupil education

funding as window dressing to distract from
sharp cuts to textbook and professional-development funding. As bad as this plan is,
the governor's proposed budget would have
been even more draconian, prompting the
Kentucky Education Association and other
education advocates to support this tax
plan. In my district, we will at best break
even, if not lose funding.
That is particularly a concern because the
U.S. poverty rate for school-age children is
far higher than most other advanced industrial nations. A majority of public school
children in 20 states and the District of
Columbia were eligible for free or reducedprice lunch in the 2014-15 school year. As
a region, Southern states, including Kentucky, have the greatest percentage of total
student population represented by children
from low-income families.
Compounding the problem, the achievement gap between children from high- and
low-income families has grown 30 to 40
percent worse among children born in 2001
compared with those born 25 years earlier,
according to Stanford University researcher
Sean Reardon.
Behind this achievement gap is a funding
gap that is growing wider. Public education
in America is not so much broken as it is
under-resourced to educate all children-
especially the most disadvantaged. It has
become especially acute in recent decades
as growing inequality and increased pov-

18 | EDUCATION WEEK | May 2, 2018 | www.edweek.org/go/commentary

"

In the five years that I
have served as
superintendent, our
district has had to do
more with less to serve
the needs of our students
and families."
erty combined with insufficient resources
that are inequitably distributed.
Although state tax revenue has recovered to above 2008 levels in most states,
the majority of states still provide less total
school-funding support for elementary and
secondary schools than before the Great
Recession, according to an analysis by the
Center on Budget and Policy Priorities.
Kentucky's 15.8 percent drop in per-pupil
funding since 2008 ranks the third worst
cut in the nation.
This persistent underfunding of public
education has grave implications for teachers and students alike. Average salaries
for public school teachers declined by 1.3
percent in constant dollars, from the 1999-

2000 school year to 2014-15, according to
the National Center for Education Statistics. Kentucky teachers, much like educators of several other states, have rallied in
the state capitol over the past several weeks
protesting proposed cuts to education, as
well as newly passed pension reform legislation that weakens the benefits for future
teachers.
Many states have continued underfunding their public K-12 education systems in
pursuit of tax breaks. Research shows, however, that investments in K-12 education,
higher education, and public infrastructure
are more beneficial to a state's economy
than offering tax incentives, according to
a 2014 report from the Center for Tax and
Budget Accountability.
Reams of evidence from other states are
equally unsupportive of the supply-side
notion that tax cuts boost growth. Several
states recently experimented with tax
cuts with little obvious success. The most
notorious case is Kansas, where then-Gov.
Sam Brownback promised that a moderate tax cut for individuals and a big tax
cut for businesses would stimulate the
economy. Since the 2012 tax cut, which
slashed the top personal income tax rate
by 25 percent, Kansas's economy has
lagged behind neighboring states, and the
state's budget has been in tatters. In the
face of poor growth and spending needs,
the Republican-led state legislature re-


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Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of Education Week - May 2, 2018

Education Week - May 2, 2018
Why Raising Teacher Pay Is So Difficult
Where K-12 Salaries Lag Home Prices, Districts Try to Help
Museums, Teachers Team Up on Science
Disparities Grow for Students of Color, Federal Data Show
Contents
Report Roundup
News in Brief
Teachers Reach Across State Lines For Help Planning Protests
Quality Crucial to Sustained Pre-K Benefits, Studies Stress
Pearson Tests Growth-Mindset Messages In Software
Spec. Ed.Community Assesses Legal Impact After Landmark Case
Florida, California Revamp ESSA Plans In Quest for Federal OK
Where Do States Line Up on Aid for Title I, Title II?
Mike Schmoker: Why I’m Against Innovation in Education
Nicholas Brake: Want to Support Public Schools? Stop Cutting Taxes
Donald Sheldon: I’m an Arizona Teacher. This Is Why I Walked Out
Letters
Ted Dintersmith: What’s Actually Going on in Classrooms?
Education Week - May 2, 2018 - Disparities Grow for Students of Color, Federal Data Show
Education Week - May 2, 2018 - 2
Education Week - May 2, 2018 - Contents
Education Week - May 2, 2018 - News in Brief
Education Week - May 2, 2018 - 5
Education Week - May 2, 2018 - Teachers Reach Across State Lines For Help Planning Protests
Education Week - May 2, 2018 - Quality Crucial to Sustained Pre-K Benefits, Studies Stress
Education Week - May 2, 2018 - Pearson Tests Growth-Mindset Messages In Software
Education Week - May 2, 2018 - 9
Education Week - May 2, 2018 - 10
Education Week - May 2, 2018 - 11
Education Week - May 2, 2018 - 12
Education Week - May 2, 2018 - 13
Education Week - May 2, 2018 - Spec. Ed.Community Assesses Legal Impact After Landmark Case
Education Week - May 2, 2018 - Where Do States Line Up on Aid for Title I, Title II?
Education Week - May 2, 2018 - 16
Education Week - May 2, 2018 - 17
Education Week - May 2, 2018 - Nicholas Brake: Want to Support Public Schools? Stop Cutting Taxes
Education Week - May 2, 2018 - Donald Sheldon: I’m an Arizona Teacher. This Is Why I Walked Out
Education Week - May 2, 2018 - Letters
Education Week - May 2, 2018 - 21
Education Week - May 2, 2018 - 22
Education Week - May 2, 2018 - 23
Education Week - May 2, 2018 - Ted Dintersmith: What’s Actually Going on in Classrooms?
Education Week - May 2, 2018 - CW1
Education Week - May 2, 2018 - CW2
Education Week - May 2, 2018 - CW3
Education Week - May 2, 2018 - CW4
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