Education Week - May 2, 2018 - 15

Where Do States Line Up
On Aid for Title I, Title II?
By Andrew Ujifusa
President Donald Trump's administration sought major cuts to the U.S.
Department of Education in its budget
proposal for fiscal 2018, and also put
forward new initiatives to boost school
choice. It fell short on both counts, and
recent spending figures released by the
Education Department last week reveal
which states are the winners and losers
for two key programs.
In the federal spending legislation
approved by Congress and signed by
Trump in March, Title I, which is earmarked for students from low-income
backgrounds and is the single largest
pot of money for K-12 funded by the
federal government, received a $300
million increase over fiscal 2017. That
brings fiscal 2018 spending on Title I
to nearly $15.8 billion. And Title II, the
portion of the Every Student Succeeds
Act that finances professional development for educators, was level-funded at
nearly $2.1 billion.
Both the Title I and Title II programs
distribute money by formulas and not
through competitive grants. Allotment
figures will be finalized in July.
According to the department's updated
budget tables for fiscal 2018, the majority
of states-29 and the District of Columbia-will get more money for fiscal 2018
in Title I money than they did for fiscal
2017, while 19 states will see a reduction
in Title I aid. Two states, New Jersey and
North Carolina, will see their funding
levels stay virtually flat.
A big Title I winner is Oklahoma,

which will get 11.6 percent more money
from that pot in fiscal 2018, which
began Oct. 1, than in 2017. In second
place is California with an 8.5 percent
increase, followed by the District of Columbia with an 8.4 percent rise. Meanwhile, Kansas will see a 9 percent drop,
New Hampshire an 8 percent decline,
and Hawaii a 7.3 percent dip.
For Title II, the story was about survival.
The administration sought to eliminate Title II. However, teachers' unions
and other education associations fought
vigorously on Capitol Hill to preserve
the grants, and ultimately Congress
decided to flat-fund them at close to
$2.1 billion for fiscal 2018.
There's a very similar story for Title
II when it comes to a state-by-state
breakdown of winners and losers. Most
states-31, along with the District
of Columbia-will see an increase in
Title II aid, while 19 states will see less
money in fiscal 2018 than in fiscal 2017.
When it passed in late 2015, ESSA
changed the formula for funding Title
II to place a greater weight on student
poverty and less on overall student population. (ESSA did not change the formulas determining how Title I money is
distributed.)
Nevada will see the biggest jump in
its Title II by percentage at 10.7 percent,
while Arizona will get an 8.8 percent increase, and North Carolina will receive
a 6.9 percent bump. On the other end of
the spectrum, West Virginia is seeing a
5.8 percent decline, New York will get a
5.4 percent dip, and Michigan will experience a 4.8 percent decrease.

TITLE I

Oklahoma

Some states were
winners and others
fell behind in fiscal
2018 funding for
Title I aid to help
low-income students.
Overall, the most
recent spending bill
in Congress boosted
Title I by $300 million
to $15.8 billion total.

California

8.5

District of Columbia

8.4

11.6

7.9

New Mexico

7.1

Louisiana

-3.7
-6.3

Michigan
Utah

-7.3

Hawaii

-8.0

New Hampshire

-9.0

Kansas

TITLE II

10.7

Nevada

Title II aid under
the Every Student
Succeeds Act goes
to professional
development for
educators and will
receive $2.1 billion in
fiscal 2018, the same
as in the previous
budget year.

8.8

Arizona

6.9

North Carolina

5.7

Georgia

4.5

Texas

-3.8
-4.5

Connecticut
Massachusetts

-4.8

Michigan

-5.4

New York

-5.8

West Virginia

SOURCE: U.S. Department of Education

Getty

Florida, California Revamp ESSA Plans in Quest for Federal OK
By Alyson Klein
U.S. Secretary of Education Betsy
DeVos may have approved Every
Student Succeeds Act plans for 37
states, but two of the biggest-Florida and California-are still angling
for their federal blessing.
DeVos has singled out schoolchoice-friendly Florida as a model
for the rest of the country. But the
department had a number of concerns about the state's initial ESSA
plan. Florida resubmitted a revised
version to the feds on April 20.
The Sunshine State's original plan
tried to stick as close as possible to
the A through F grading system that
Florida had in place under its No
Child Left Behind Act waiver.
That meant Florida didn't want to
rate schools on how well they help
English-language learners achieve
proficiency-an ESSA must. And
the state wanted to continue to use
a combined "super subgroup" that
considers the lowest-performing 25
percent of students in a school (no
matter what their race, income, or
disability status) rather then look at
results for English-learners, students
in special education, and racial minorities separately.
That flew in the face of ESSA's
requirement to take subgroup per-

formance into account in identifying
struggling schools.
To address these issues, the state
has come up with a federal index
that will be separate from its A-F
school grading system. That index
will take English-language proficiency into account, and will be
used-in addition to the school
grading system-to flag struggling
schools. And Florida has also added
language to its plan saying it will
consider individual subgroup performance, not just overall school grades,
in identifying schools for "targeted
support" under the law.

Advocates Wary
The changes may satisfy the department. But civil rights advocates
wish Florida had done more to
make it clear that the performance
of subgroups of students matters.
"I think it's a shame that they
didn't go further and include ELLs
in their A through F system, which
is what parents are familiar with,"
said Lorén Trull, a senior education
policy adviser with UnidosUS, the
civil rights group formerly known
as the National Council of La Raza.
Trull has briefly reviewed Florida's revised plan. And she's worried
that Florida is now moving towards

a bifurcated system, where schools
are held accountable by one set of
standards for the state and another
set for the federal government.
"We want accountability systems
that are aligned," Trull said. "Not
where in one system they say a
school is doing well and in another,
they say they are not. Parents and
teachers don't know what that
means."
What's more, ESSA requires
states to identify languages other
than English that are present to a
"significant extent" in the student
population and to make every effort
to create native language exams for
new arrivals. Florida, though, has
a state law that makes English the
state's official language. The state
initially declined to name any other
popular language, despite its sizable Spanish-speaking population.
Florida's revised plan does define
which languages are "present to a
significant extent" under ESSA.
Only one meets the proposed definition: Spanish. That means the state
could end up meeting the letter of
the law.
But it is unclear if Florida will
actually end up creating tests in
Spanish, said Anne Hyslop, a former Obama administration official
who reviewed Florida's plan for

Bellwether Education Partners
and the Collaborative for Student
Success. The state could say that
it made "every effort" to offer such
tests, but was hamstrung by its
state law.
"It's a symbolic thing. Substantively, will Florida do anything
different with regard to native-language assessments? Probably not,"
said Hyslop.

California's Revised Pitch
Meanwhile, California last month
submitted a revised ESSA plan that
meets the federal demand to flag
schools in the bottom 5 percent of
performers in the state.
That requirement-an ESSA
must-doesn't jibe well with California's own school rating system,
which relies on a color-based dashboard that uses specific criteria
to identify the lowest-performing
schools and districts.
What's more, California's own
accountability system focuses on
school districts, whereas ESSA requires states to identify individual
schools as low-performing. California also intervenes in districts that
are performing below a certain level.
The state doesn't seek to identify a
particular percentage of schools as

struggling. And some members of
California's state board of education
were uncomfortable with the federal
approach.
Ultimately though, to meet the
federal requirement, California
opted to flag as low-performing
those schools that were doing either
very poorly or poorly on half or more
of the indicators measured by the
dashboard, according to David Sapp,
the deputy policy director and assistant legal counsel for the California
state board of education. That may
end up capturing 6 or 8 percent of
schools, he said, as opposed to just 5
percent. But it is closer in line with
the state's own system, Sapp said.
California also tweaked its plan
to measure a school or district's improvement or decline over time in a
way that was more consistent with
ESSA. And the state made changes
to the way 11th grade tests figure
into school ratings, also at the Education Department's behest.
In addition, the state revamped its
definition of English-language proficiency to better match the federal
requirements. But California is seeking a waiver to go back to its own
definition, which takes into account
whether English-language learners
have been "reclassified" as proficient
in English.

EDUCATION WEEK | May 2, 2018 | www.edweek.org | 15


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Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of Education Week - May 2, 2018

Education Week - May 2, 2018
Why Raising Teacher Pay Is So Difficult
Where K-12 Salaries Lag Home Prices, Districts Try to Help
Museums, Teachers Team Up on Science
Disparities Grow for Students of Color, Federal Data Show
Contents
Report Roundup
News in Brief
Teachers Reach Across State Lines For Help Planning Protests
Quality Crucial to Sustained Pre-K Benefits, Studies Stress
Pearson Tests Growth-Mindset Messages In Software
Spec. Ed.Community Assesses Legal Impact After Landmark Case
Florida, California Revamp ESSA Plans In Quest for Federal OK
Where Do States Line Up on Aid for Title I, Title II?
Mike Schmoker: Why I’m Against Innovation in Education
Nicholas Brake: Want to Support Public Schools? Stop Cutting Taxes
Donald Sheldon: I’m an Arizona Teacher. This Is Why I Walked Out
Letters
Ted Dintersmith: What’s Actually Going on in Classrooms?
Education Week - May 2, 2018 - Disparities Grow for Students of Color, Federal Data Show
Education Week - May 2, 2018 - 2
Education Week - May 2, 2018 - Contents
Education Week - May 2, 2018 - News in Brief
Education Week - May 2, 2018 - 5
Education Week - May 2, 2018 - Teachers Reach Across State Lines For Help Planning Protests
Education Week - May 2, 2018 - Quality Crucial to Sustained Pre-K Benefits, Studies Stress
Education Week - May 2, 2018 - Pearson Tests Growth-Mindset Messages In Software
Education Week - May 2, 2018 - 9
Education Week - May 2, 2018 - 10
Education Week - May 2, 2018 - 11
Education Week - May 2, 2018 - 12
Education Week - May 2, 2018 - 13
Education Week - May 2, 2018 - Spec. Ed.Community Assesses Legal Impact After Landmark Case
Education Week - May 2, 2018 - Where Do States Line Up on Aid for Title I, Title II?
Education Week - May 2, 2018 - 16
Education Week - May 2, 2018 - 17
Education Week - May 2, 2018 - Nicholas Brake: Want to Support Public Schools? Stop Cutting Taxes
Education Week - May 2, 2018 - Donald Sheldon: I’m an Arizona Teacher. This Is Why I Walked Out
Education Week - May 2, 2018 - Letters
Education Week - May 2, 2018 - 21
Education Week - May 2, 2018 - 22
Education Week - May 2, 2018 - 23
Education Week - May 2, 2018 - Ted Dintersmith: What’s Actually Going on in Classrooms?
Education Week - May 2, 2018 - CW1
Education Week - May 2, 2018 - CW2
Education Week - May 2, 2018 - CW3
Education Week - May 2, 2018 - CW4
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