Education Week - April 25, 2018 - 6

RACIAL GAPS IN LOST
DAYS FOR STUDENTS
WITH DISABILITIES
Black students with disabilities lose
three times as much instructional
time from discipline as their white
peers, researchers found. The national
average for every 100 black students
with special needs was 121 days in
2015-16. But some states' averages
are much higher.

The five states with the largest racial disparity in loss of instruction for students with disabilities in 2015-16
250

209
194

194

200

173

167
153

150

Black

146

White

117

117

108

Racial Gap

100

SOURCE: Center for Civil Rights
Remedies, University of California,
Los Angeles

77
56
50

0

Nevada

48

50

Nebraska

Ohio

Missouri

65

Tennessee

Discipline Gaps-and Ways to Close Them-Get Scrutiny
Researchers swap
findings at AERA
By Sarah D. Sparks
New York

Researchers and civil rights
experts from across the country
highlighted potential ways to build
more equitable systems for students who are disproportionately
disciplined at school, in a series
of findings presented last week
during the annual meeting of the
American Educational Research
Association here.
The study topic has become increasingly urgent. While many
states and districts are working to
discipline students more fairly, few
have made significant progress in
doing so.
"So far, we've found no intervention has evidence of significantly
reducing disproportionate discipline and bias, ... and this problem has been around 50, 60 years,"
said Michael Pullman, a research
associate professor at the University of Washington in Seattle, who
studies interventions intended to
reduce racial disparities in schools.
"There hasn't been a sense of, what
do you do about this; being aware
of it isn't enough. It's really led to
some random acts of intervention."
In the past five years, the research arms of both the federal
Departments of Education and
Justice have invested in new research programs aimed at improving school safety and reducing
discipline disparities, according to
Nadine Frederique, a social-science
analyst at the National Institute
of Justice's office of research and
evaluation. Education systems'
push to address discipline disparities accelerated after the Education and Justice departments
jointly issued guidance under
President Barack Obama's administration suggesting policies that

lead to disproportionate discipline
for one racial group could violate
civil rights laws. (U.S. Secretary of
Education Betsy DeVos has since
suggested she wants to roll back
that guidance.)
"By 2015, 22 states and [the
District of Columbia] revised laws
limiting the use of exclusionary
[discipline] practices," noted Chris
Curran, an assistant professor of
public policy at the University of
Maryland, Baltimore County.
He said Maryland became "an
early mover" in this area following
a lawsuit over racial disparities in
school suspensions and expulsions.
The state changed its discipline
policy, using a five-tier framework
for gauging the severity of a student's behavior and finding appropriate responses.
Curran and Maida Finch of
Salisbury University examined
the discipline codes of the state's
20 districts in 2013-14, just before
the state guidance, and in 2015-16,
a year after the new guidance.

Five Options
The researchers found that after
the state changed its discipline
policy, school districts added more
than five options to respond to the
average offense for students of all
races, with the most new options
offered for serious offenses, such
as property destruction, arson, and
drug-related behaviors. School administrators became significantly
more likely, for example, to refer
special education students to their
student-support team or have
misbehaving students enter into
a "behavior contract" rather than
suspend them out of school.
"Changes in what we put in
schools' codes of conduct can have
very real effects on students," Curran said. "Instead of saying, 'Well,
a fight automatically goes to a
suspension because that's the only
option listed there,' they may have
four or five options to respond."

6 | EDUCATION WEEK | April 25, 2018 | www.edweek.org

The researchers also found that the
changes cut across school demographics: Districts with majority-white and
majority-black and -Hispanic students
were equally likely to provide more
options for dealing with student
misbehavior.
A separate study previewed at
the conference zeroed in on disparities in discipline meted out to
students with disabilities.
The Center for Civil Rights Remedies at the University of California, Los Angeles, Civil Rights Project, and the Houston Institute for
Race and Justice analyzed federal
data on out-of-school suspensions
for special education students,
who historically have experienced
exclusionary discipline at disproportionate rates.
While under the Individuals
with Disabilities Education Act,
students should not face that sort
of discipline for behaviors associated with their disability, they can
still be suspended for up to 10 days
without additional due process.
"All those 'less than 10 days' can
add up to be a big difference," said
Daniel Losen, the director of the
UCLA civil rights center, who led
the study. "For kids with disabilities, they are getting a lot more in
terms of supports and service when
they are in school, ... so when they
are missing school because they
are suspended, they lose more."
Looking at national data, Losen
found that while students of all
races with disabilities showed
higher rates of discipline than
those for nondisabled students,
some massive gaps remained between white and black students
in the total number of days lost to
suspension. In both the 2014-15
and 2015-16 school years, black
students with disabilities lost
roughly three times as much instruction from discipline as their
white peers did. In 2015-16, for
every 100 students with special
needs, the amount of lost school
from suspensions was 121 days on

average for black students, compared with 43 days of school lost
for white students with disabilities.
"In Nevada, you have 153 days
more missed instruction if you are
black and have a disability than if
you are white and have a disability," Losen said. "This is not necessarily legal proof of discrimination,
but when we see numbers like this,
there is something broken here."

Identifying Successful Districts
Like his conference colleagues,
Losen is trying to find and learn
from schools and districts with
more equitable discipline practices.
He and Russell Skiba, the director of the Equity Project at Indiana
University Bloomington, analyzed
federal civil rights data on 6,000
districts to identify those that had
showed more equitable discipline,
while also improving academic
achievement for minority students
and the school population overall.
Each district selected had to
have: a significant population of
poor and minority students, high
school graduation rates above 60
percent, and no schools identified as low-achieving under their
state's accountability system. The
district also had to have out-ofschool suspension rates for black
students, low-income students,
and those with disabilities below 5
percent in elementary school and
below 10 percent in middle and
high school-both significantly
below national averages. The researchers selected three districts
for in-depth case studies.
In those three districts, all of
which significantly lowered suspension rates while maintaining
good test scores, "the focus was
on the well-being of the kids and
achieving strong academic outcomes, and the discipline [reform]
was embedded in that."
The researchers found that all
three worked closely with their
teachers' unions and provided

time, training, and resources to
teachers on alternatives to suspension, such as restorative justice or
positive behavioral interventions
and supports. The districts also
made clear changes to their board
policies and regularly used data to
identify and address discipline and
academic gaps in schools.
In a separate study, a Florida
district partnered with researchers
from the Center for Policing Equity
at UCLA to figure out why racial
disparities remained even after it
halved the overall rates of suspensions and expulsions.
R. Nicole Johnson-Ahorlu, the
director for education and juvenile-justice research at the center,
found discipline involved a series
of staff decisions about whether
misbehavior had occurred and
whether and how the school responded.
"It's a process of decisions, and if
those decisions can be confounded
in any way by prejudices, biases, or
anything else, we want to be thinking about it," she said.
The team identified three issues
that can raise the risk of conscious
or unconscious bias in school discipline:
* Ambiguity: when a rule or situation is open to multiple interpretations.
* Discretion: when staff or administrators have significant freedom to decide how to respond.
* Accountability structure: when
the district relies on the disciplined
student or his parents to complain
to identify inequitable school discipline, rather than identifying problematic patterns in its own data.
The center and the district are
now exploring how differences
in the ways students experience
school, the social climate in different buildings, and other factors can
also affect discipline rates.
Visit the INSIDE SCHOOL RESEARCH
blog, which tracks news and trends
on this issue. www.edweek.org/blogs


http://www.edweek.org/blogs http://www.edweek.org

Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of Education Week - April 25, 2018

Education Week - April 25, 2018
Facing Hard Facts on College and Career
School Choice Proves Scarce in ESSA Plans
After a Shooting in Her Classroom, Teacher Re-evaluates School Safety
Pension Woes Have Teachers On Front Lines
Contents
News in Brief
Report Roundup
Discipline Gaps—and Ways to Close Them —Get Scrutiny
Parents Lash Out at District Over Shooting
Arizona Teachers Set to Strike Over School Funding and Pay
Schools With Confederate Ties Slowly Shed Their Names
U.S. Students Surprise on New Exam Of Online Reading
NAEP: Gaps Widen Between High Fliers And Low Scorers
Ed. Dept. Policing ESSA Assessment Rule On Special Education
Federal Special Ed. Chief Aims to Foster Partnership
School Shootings Reverberate On Capitol Hill
Ian Rowe: What NAEP Scores Aren’t Telling Us
In Conversation John Urschel: From the NFL to MIT
Rebecca Kolins Givan & Pamela Whitefield: Teacher Pay Isn’t the Whole Story
Thomas Toch: 35 Years After ‘A Nation at Risk,’ Education Is Still Going in the Wrong Direction
Letters
Education Week - April 25, 2018 - Pension Woes Have Teachers On Front Lines
Education Week - April 25, 2018 - 2
Education Week - April 25, 2018 - Contents
Education Week - April 25, 2018 - Report Roundup
Education Week - April 25, 2018 - 5
Education Week - April 25, 2018 - Discipline Gaps—and Ways to Close Them —Get Scrutiny
Education Week - April 25, 2018 - Arizona Teachers Set to Strike Over School Funding and Pay
Education Week - April 25, 2018 - Schools With Confederate Ties Slowly Shed Their Names
Education Week - April 25, 2018 - 9
Education Week - April 25, 2018 - 10
Education Week - April 25, 2018 - 11
Education Week - April 25, 2018 - U.S. Students Surprise on New Exam Of Online Reading
Education Week - April 25, 2018 - NAEP: Gaps Widen Between High Fliers And Low Scorers
Education Week - April 25, 2018 - 14
Education Week - April 25, 2018 - 15
Education Week - April 25, 2018 - 16
Education Week - April 25, 2018 - Federal Special Ed. Chief Aims to Foster Partnership
Education Week - April 25, 2018 - School Shootings Reverberate On Capitol Hill
Education Week - April 25, 2018 - 19
Education Week - April 25, 2018 - 20
Education Week - April 25, 2018 - 21
Education Week - April 25, 2018 - In Conversation John Urschel: From the NFL to MIT
Education Week - April 25, 2018 - Rebecca Kolins Givan & Pamela Whitefield: Teacher Pay Isn’t the Whole Story
Education Week - April 25, 2018 - 24
Education Week - April 25, 2018 - 25
Education Week - April 25, 2018 - 26
Education Week - April 25, 2018 - 27
Education Week - April 25, 2018 - Letters
Education Week - April 25, 2018 - CW1
Education Week - April 25, 2018 - CW2
Education Week - April 25, 2018 - CW3
Education Week - April 25, 2018 - CW4
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