Education Week - April 25, 2018 - 28

COMMENTARY

22
WHAT NAEP SCORES
AREN'T TELLING US

22
JOHN URSCHEL:
FROM THE NFL TO MIT

23
TEACHER PAY ISN'T
THE WHOLE STORY

35 Years After 'A Nation at Risk,'
Education Is Still Going in the Wrong Direction

I

thing. But they don't acknowledge that in the
past, vocational education was often a dumping
ground for the students public education didn't
want to educate, rather than an alternative
path to postsecondary success.
Despite a recent tweet hailing "A Nation at
Risk" as a landmark document and an admonishment that "35 years later, we are a nation

By Thomas Toch
t has been 35 years since a federally
funded commission charted a bold new
course for public education in an explosive report aptly titled "A Nation at
Risk." "If an unfriendly foreign power
had attempted to impose on America
the mediocre educational performance
that exists today," its authors warned,
"we might well have viewed it as an act of war."
Established by then-Secretary of Education
Terrel Bell during Ronald Reagan's first term
as president, the National Commission on Excellence in Education laid bare the troubled
state of a public school system racked by property-tax revolts, the upheavals of desegregation,
and myriad other challenges. The commission's
defining insight was that the United States
needed to recalibrate the mission of its public
schools, with a centerpiece recommendation for
a core high school curriculum for every student.
The commission called it the New Basics.
The emerging post-industrial economy elevated brains over brawn. The civil rights movement demanded an increased national commitment to equal educational opportunity. Public
education's practice of preparing most students
for work in factories or on assembly lines was no
longer good enough. Thinking skills were "the
new raw materials of international commerce"
that all students need, the commission declared.
Governors and state legislators, eager to
ready their workforces for the emerging knowledge economy, embraced the proposal. Dozens of
states demanded that students take more-and
more demanding-courses in English, math,
science, and history as part of a wide-ranging
reform agenda that put education on the front
pages of the nation's newspapers for the first
time since the Russians put Sputnik in space
in the late 1950s.
It was a shock to the public education system.
The nation's high schools were staffed to teach
a lot more woodworking and pre-algebra than
chemistry and calculus. Many local educators
simply didn't believe that a majority of students
could study rigorous subjects. "Instead of more math
and English, what we really need for many kids are
more courses in how to plant trees and such," a
Florida high school principal told me, a perspective
I heard often in the 1980s while researching a book
on the era.
Many educators disparaged public education's
new academic focus as elitist and subverted the
New Basics by enrolling students in watered-down
courses like general science and informal geometry.
In many school districts, students could complete
a four-year sequence in the fundamentals of math
without studying anything but arithmetic. In others, commercial food preparation and auto-body repair counted toward science requirements.
It's fashionable in education circles today, on both
the right and the left, to disparage the national education initiatives since "A Nation at Risk" as federal
overreach. Before the Trump administration took
over, Sen. Lamar Alexander, the Republican chair of

"

Many of our nation's current
political leaders, including
Secretary of Education
Betsy DeVos, seem to have
lost sight of 'A Nation at Risk'
and its central tenet."

the Senate Committee on Health, Education, Labor,
and Pensions and the principal author of the Every
Student Succeeds Act, complained about the federal
government being a "national school board."
But it was the jaded response to the New Basics
decades ago that led national and state leaders of
both political parties to take increasingly direct
steps to get local educators to aim higher.
In 1989, President George H.W. Bush and the
nation's governors set national education goals.
As Bush's second education secretary, Alexander
advocated voluntary national standards and tests.
Both became a reality in the form of the Common
Core State Standards and the PARCC and Smarter
Balanced tests.
Unfortunately, many of our nation's current political leaders, including Secretary of Education
Betsy DeVos, seem to have lost sight of "A Nation
at Risk" and its central tenet. They insist that local
educators who know students best should set the
standards, and they argue that teaching students to
use their hands rather than their heads isn't a bad

28 | EDUCATION WEEK | April 25, 2018 | www.edweek.org/go/commentary

still at risk," Secretary DeVos has ignored
local school districts' troubled history of low
expectations. She has disparaged the work of
her predecessors to address the problem, attacked the common core, and demanded that
local educators be left in charge of educational
expectations. Not surprisingly, her predecessors pushed back at a symposium earlier this
month on the landmark education report. "The
pressure to relent [on high standards for all
students] at the local level is fierce," said Margaret Spellings, former secretary of education
under the George W. Bush administration.
DeVos' agenda closely mirrors that of the Reagan administration before "A Nation at Risk,"
with sharp cuts in federal education funding,
private school vouchers, and diminished federal protections for vulnerable students. In fact,
Jonathan Bouw for Education Week
Reagan had first used the release of the report
to promote vouchers and the administration's
conservative agenda. Only when Reagan's aide
Michael Deaver and pollster Richard Wirthlin seized
on the report's workforce themes as a way to win favor
in the 1984 presidential race did Reagan turn the commission's call to arms into a national crusade.
Given the magnitude of the challenge, it's hardly a
surprise that we haven't fully achieved the Reagan
era's audacious aspirations for public education. But
the anniversary of "A Nation at Risk" should remind
us of the report's important charge to the nation's
educators-and the reluctance of many educators to
embrace it. The wage gap between the educated and
the undereducated continues to expand, and students
of color are increasingly the nation's future. If Secretary DeVos truly wants educational equity, she should
follow her predecessors in pushing local educators to
pursue the report's groundbreaking goal. n
THOMAS TOCH is the director of FutureEd, an independent
think tank at Georgetown University's McCourt School of
Public Policy. He is the author of In the Name of Excellence
(Oxford University Press, 1991).


http://www.edweek.org/go/commentary

Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of Education Week - April 25, 2018

Education Week - April 25, 2018
Facing Hard Facts on College and Career
School Choice Proves Scarce in ESSA Plans
After a Shooting in Her Classroom, Teacher Re-evaluates School Safety
Pension Woes Have Teachers On Front Lines
Contents
News in Brief
Report Roundup
Discipline Gaps—and Ways to Close Them —Get Scrutiny
Parents Lash Out at District Over Shooting
Arizona Teachers Set to Strike Over School Funding and Pay
Schools With Confederate Ties Slowly Shed Their Names
U.S. Students Surprise on New Exam Of Online Reading
NAEP: Gaps Widen Between High Fliers And Low Scorers
Ed. Dept. Policing ESSA Assessment Rule On Special Education
Federal Special Ed. Chief Aims to Foster Partnership
School Shootings Reverberate On Capitol Hill
Ian Rowe: What NAEP Scores Aren’t Telling Us
In Conversation John Urschel: From the NFL to MIT
Rebecca Kolins Givan & Pamela Whitefield: Teacher Pay Isn’t the Whole Story
Thomas Toch: 35 Years After ‘A Nation at Risk,’ Education Is Still Going in the Wrong Direction
Letters
Education Week - April 25, 2018 - Pension Woes Have Teachers On Front Lines
Education Week - April 25, 2018 - 2
Education Week - April 25, 2018 - Contents
Education Week - April 25, 2018 - Report Roundup
Education Week - April 25, 2018 - 5
Education Week - April 25, 2018 - Discipline Gaps—and Ways to Close Them —Get Scrutiny
Education Week - April 25, 2018 - Arizona Teachers Set to Strike Over School Funding and Pay
Education Week - April 25, 2018 - Schools With Confederate Ties Slowly Shed Their Names
Education Week - April 25, 2018 - 9
Education Week - April 25, 2018 - 10
Education Week - April 25, 2018 - 11
Education Week - April 25, 2018 - U.S. Students Surprise on New Exam Of Online Reading
Education Week - April 25, 2018 - NAEP: Gaps Widen Between High Fliers And Low Scorers
Education Week - April 25, 2018 - 14
Education Week - April 25, 2018 - 15
Education Week - April 25, 2018 - 16
Education Week - April 25, 2018 - Federal Special Ed. Chief Aims to Foster Partnership
Education Week - April 25, 2018 - School Shootings Reverberate On Capitol Hill
Education Week - April 25, 2018 - 19
Education Week - April 25, 2018 - 20
Education Week - April 25, 2018 - 21
Education Week - April 25, 2018 - In Conversation John Urschel: From the NFL to MIT
Education Week - April 25, 2018 - Rebecca Kolins Givan & Pamela Whitefield: Teacher Pay Isn’t the Whole Story
Education Week - April 25, 2018 - 24
Education Week - April 25, 2018 - 25
Education Week - April 25, 2018 - 26
Education Week - April 25, 2018 - 27
Education Week - April 25, 2018 - Letters
Education Week - April 25, 2018 - CW1
Education Week - April 25, 2018 - CW2
Education Week - April 25, 2018 - CW3
Education Week - April 25, 2018 - CW4
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