Education Week - April 18, 2018 - 12

SCREEN TIME /

than just counting up the hours.
"It's so important to think about technology
as something more than just a monolithic word
that just means everything," Guernsey said. She
wrote Screen Time: How Electronic Media-From
Baby Videos to Educational Software-Affects Your
Young Child and co-authored Tap, Click, Read:
Growing Readers in a World of Screens.
"We are in a moment where we see kids looking at devices and screens, and because we are
not engaged in that game, we automatically
think this is some kind of mindless activity
where they are lost," she said. "We don't take
the next step to watch with them, play with
them, talk about what they're doing."
In 2016, the American Academy of Pediatrics
acknowledged as much. Nearly two decades
ago, the organization said that parents should
discourage all electronic-media use in children
younger than 2. But in its new guidelines, the
pediatricians group acknowledges that some
exposure to high-quality media-"Sesame
Street," for example-can have educational
value for children as young as 18 months. For
school-aged children, the AAP recommends
that families should balance media use with
other healthy behaviors.
Patricia Greenfield, a professor of psychology at the University of California, Los Angeles,
and the director of the Children's Digital Media
Center @ Los Angeles, researches the develop-

mental implications of social media and television. Principals are right to be concerned about
technology use outside of school, she said, and
they should be equally as concerned about technology use during the school day.
And for Greenfield, it's not the content alone
that is troublesome.
"What I'm thinking of is technology as a
form, the medium. Screens versus in-person
interactions," she said. "There are benefits and
there are costs."
For example, Greenfield co-authored a
research paper in 2014 that surveyed 9- to
14-year-olds, asking them about their television and social-media diet and their aspirations for the future. Heavy consumers of social
media and TV tended to have more individualistic goals, such as the desire to be famous.
The youths who said they spent more time on
activities such as team sports were more likely
to have collectivist aspirations, such as a desire to help others in need.
"Schools need to be giving a lot of time for
social interaction and need to value prosocial
behavior," Greenfield said.

THE CONCERNS ABOUT TECHNOLOGY USE OFTEN ASsume that all students and schools have equal
access to it, however. For Monti Hillis, the principal of Bobby Ray Memorial Elementary School

For each of the following activities, do you prefer that students in your school
use devices with screens, or paper-and-pencil?

88%

Conduct research

2
51

Take standardized tests

31
28

Improve reading ability
Practice new math
concepts and skills

35

24

51

21

Take notes
Learning new math
concepts and skills

45

19
100

80

60

40

20

56
0

Devices with screens are better

12

Education Week / April 18, 2018

20

40

60

80

Paper/pencil is better

100

in rural McMinnville, Tenn., that's not true.
She believes students in her school, located in
a rural community about 75 miles southeast of
Nashville, don't get enough access to technology, either outside school or during the school
day.
"Really, our children are at a disadvantage,
and that plays into so many things as far as
their career choice, as far as their grades," Hillis
said.
For example, she'd love for her students to
have more opportunities to take virtual field
trips, or to enrich their science learning with
online lessons and virtual dissections.
Hillis said she tries to divert most of her school
funds to technology purchases when she can.
"I haven't bought playground equipment in
a long time," Hillis said. "But when I look at
it, I can buy a piece of playground equipment
for $10,000. How many Chromebooks can that
buy?"
Hayet Woods, the principal of Symington
Elementary in Kansas City, Mo., leads a Title I
school that is uniquely technology-rich.
Through the Obama administration's ConnectED initiative, Symington, which enrolls
grades 1-6, is one of only 114 schools across the
country to receive a grant from Apple that provides iPads to every student.
Woods, like many principals, is concerned
that students spending too much time in front
of screens-whether at home or in school-
could lead to overuse of social media and the
potential problems associated with such behavior.
She has experienced tragedy tied to social
media. Woods was a middle school principal in
2015 when a 14-year-old student, Alexis Kane,
was lured out of her home after exchanging
messages with a man through Facebook Messenger. Kane was later shot and killed in the
early morning at a Kansas City water park.
Woods' specific concerns are that children
and youths may be sharing too much information about themselves online. Her school uses
a social-media curriculum through Common
Sense Media that students must complete before they can take their iPads home. Woods said
teachers also explain the importance of using
their time wisely on their devices. Because the
initiative provides a limited amount of wireless internet access for students to use at home,
homework must come first.
"This does have to be explicitly taught,"
Woods said. "Our job is to prepare them to
be responsible citizens. We have to do everything to help them be responsible with the
device they have." n



Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of Education Week - April 18, 2018

Education Week - April 18, 2018
Pressure Points for Principals
What Principals Really Think About Tech
Survey Results: On Tech Trends, Principals Say...
Weighing Limits on Screen Time
Screen Time: What Educators Need to Know
Personalized Learning
Personalized Learning: What Educators Need to Know
On Social Media, Principals
Social Media: What Educators Need to Know
Principals Report Computer
Computer Science: What Educators Need to Know
Technology Leadership Is Tough
Education Week - April 18, 2018 - Education Week - April 18, 2018
Education Week - April 18, 2018 - Cover2
Education Week - April 18, 2018 - 1
Education Week - April 18, 2018 - Pressure Points for Principals
Education Week - April 18, 2018 - 3
Education Week - April 18, 2018 - What Principals Really Think About Tech
Education Week - April 18, 2018 - 5
Education Week - April 18, 2018 - Survey Results: On Tech Trends, Principals Say...
Education Week - April 18, 2018 - 7
Education Week - April 18, 2018 - 8
Education Week - April 18, 2018 - 9
Education Week - April 18, 2018 - Weighing Limits on Screen Time
Education Week - April 18, 2018 - 11
Education Week - April 18, 2018 - 12
Education Week - April 18, 2018 - Screen Time: What Educators Need to Know
Education Week - April 18, 2018 - Personalized Learning
Education Week - April 18, 2018 - 15
Education Week - April 18, 2018 - 16
Education Week - April 18, 2018 - 17
Education Week - April 18, 2018 - 18
Education Week - April 18, 2018 - Personalized Learning: What Educators Need to Know
Education Week - April 18, 2018 - On Social Media, Principals
Education Week - April 18, 2018 - 21
Education Week - April 18, 2018 - 22
Education Week - April 18, 2018 - Social Media: What Educators Need to Know
Education Week - April 18, 2018 - Principals Report Computer
Education Week - April 18, 2018 - 25
Education Week - April 18, 2018 - 26
Education Week - April 18, 2018 - Computer Science: What Educators Need to Know
Education Week - April 18, 2018 - Technology Leadership Is Tough
Education Week - April 18, 2018 - 29
Education Week - April 18, 2018 - 30
Education Week - April 18, 2018 - 31
Education Week - April 18, 2018 - 32
Education Week - April 18, 2018 - Cover3
Education Week - April 18, 2018 - Cover4
Education Week - April 18, 2018 - CW1
Education Week - April 18, 2018 - CW2
Education Week - April 18, 2018 - CW3
Education Week - April 18, 2018 - CW4
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http://www.nxtbookMEDIA.com