Education Week - April 11, 2018 - 28

COMMENTARY

22
SCHOOL SAFETY
SHOULDN'T COME AT THE
COST OF JUSTICE

22
THE GENTRIFICATION OF
CREATIVITY

24
LETTERS TO THE EDITOR

Getty

Five Steps
To Avert
School Violence
By Frank Straub, Sarah
Solano & John Rosiak

A

fter every school shooting, we ask how the horrific tragedy happened
and whether anything
could have been done to
prevent it. In the aftermath of the Parkland,
Fla., shooting, it came to
light that law-enforcement officials had not
followed up on a tip they received in January
about accused perpetrator Nikolas Cruz's concerning behavior. We are not asking the right
questions soon enough. Did anyone see warning signs? Could anyone have taken action?
For every tragedy, there are many more
instances of averted school violence that
don't make the news beyond the affected
school district. The higher ratio of averted
vs. successful acts is known as the "near
miss" concept. For many years, incident
prevention has informed best practices in
the reduction of aviation, fire, and medical
injuries and fatalities.

That's why the Police Foundation, a national nonprofit organization with a mission
to improve policing through innovation and
science, began tracking incidents of averted
school violence in a national database. The
project began in 2015 and is funded by the
National Institute of Justice and the Office
of Community Oriented Policing Services,
which are both housed in the U.S. Department of Justice. Through careful study and
analysis of a sample of averted incidents,
the foundation has identified valuable lessons in attack prevention. This work should
prompt schools to revise safety policies, procedures, and training to respond more effectively when the threat of an incident arises.
To date, the foundation has collected 51
averted-incident reports over the last year
and a half, the majority identified from
open-source news and court documents.
As three individuals who work closely with
the database project, we believe many more
incidents go unreported, particularly those
that don't gain public attention or result in
criminal prosecution.
Not only do the foundation's experts record
averted incidents, anyone who has been in-

30

WHO DISCOVERED
THE SCHOOL VIOLENCE PLOT?

25

Out of 51 averted incidents of school violence,
students most often discovered suspicious behavior first.
Number of Incidents

20
SOURCE: The Police Foundation, 2018

15

10

5

0
Peer

School
Personnel

Other

Law
Enforcement

Parent of
student peer

28 | EDUCATION WEEK | April 11, 2018 | www.edweek.org/go/commentary

Neighbor

volved in a near-miss incident can also enter
information anonymously into the database.
The good news is that people, especially lawenforcement and school officials, are increasingly doing so. Those reporting an averted
incident-defined as a planned violent attack on school grounds prevented before injury or loss of life occurred-can do so at any
point after it occurs, even years later. Each
report lists information about the school and
its security, the averted attack plans and attempted execution, the perpetrator, prevention mechanisms, and lessons learned.
What have we learned that can help prevent school violence? Here are five actions
teachers and school leaders can take to improve school safety:
* Train students to monitor and report suspicious behavior. In more than
half of the open-source incidents we studied,
students were the first to discover another
student's violent plan. Students who hear
threats of violence from their classmates-
whether in person or on social media-
should take them seriously and report them
immediately to parents, law enforcement,
or school authorities. Potential perpetrators
of violence frequently use online platforms
such as Facebook, Instagram, and Snapchat
to discuss their plans or to express disdain
for their school or classmates.
Educators and parents should let students know that they must pass along
anything that gives them pause, including
signs of suicide or depression in a peer, even
if they don't have solid evidence. An indirect
reference or a disturbing comment could be
a significant warning sign. Adults should
also seek to assure students that their privacy will be protected if they make a report,
and they will face no personal consequences
for acting in good faith.
* Make a staff plan of action for timely
communication of incidents to parents.
Communication with parents can be difficult to navigate in high-stress situations,
but prompt messages about what has happened or is happening are important. This
is especially true in today's world, where
messages from students will likely outpace
official school communication. Schools need
to communicate accurate information to
avoid rumors and panic from spreading.
* Develop personal relationships
with students. All staff and school resource officers should strive to maintain a

comfortable rapport with all students. This
allows staff to be aware of students who are
bullied or feel excluded and depressed, and
may help detect when students are dealing
with troubling feelings. In turn, students
who feel close to trusted adults in the school
may be able to talk with them about their
feelings before it's too late.
* Direct safety concerns through a
team for review. Schools should not limit
responsibilities of school safety monitoring
to one person. School leaders, teachers, and
staff that monitor building entrances, as
well as school resource officers and other
law-enforcement officials, should meet regularly as a case-management team to discuss any reported problems, concerns, and
observations. This also includes notifying all
school staff when students are suspended
or expelled. School staff should be informed
of the reasons for the suspension or expulsion to the full extent permitted by the
Family Educational Rights and Privacy Act
(FERPA). As a general rule, those students
should not be allowed on campus the same
day as the suspension or expulsion.
* Develop well-defined and practiced
active shooter and emergency plans. Law
enforcement should develop active-shooter
plans in collaboration with schools. As part of
this work, all school administrators, teachers,
and staff should be trained in CPR and basic
lifesaving skills for traumatic injuries.
As acts of senseless violence continue to
ravage our schools, we encourage school administrators, teachers, law-enforcement officials, and mental-health professionals who
have been involved in averting an attack
to submit their experiences anonymously
to our online database. By being proactive, contributors can both improve safety
in their school district and help to protect
other schools across the country.
In this way, we hope to ask important
questions about warning signs and possible
interventions. It's one prong in what should
be a multifaceted approach to protecting the
lives of our children. n
FRANK STRAUB is the director of strategic studies
for the Police Foundation, a nonprofit based in
Washington, D.C. SARAH SOLANO is a project
assistant for the foundation. JOHN ROSIAK, a
school safety expert, is the founder of Prevention
Partnerships, which collaborates with the Police
Foundation.


http://www.edweek.org/go/commentary

Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of Education Week - April 11, 2018

Education Week - April 11, 2018
A High Court Justice’s School Law Heritage
MLK: Watering Down the Legacy?
Remaking High School With Help From Businesses
After a Shooting, What Should Principals Do?
Labor Unrest Fueling Hopes Of Democrats
News in Brief
Report Roundup
Does Praise for Good Effort Backfire for Teenagers?
Schools Have Gotten Safer Over Time
Effort Helps Teachers Sift Out Overlooked Gifted Students
H.S. Diploma Criteria Fall Short, Study Finds
Schools Re-Examine Facebook’s Data-Privacy Protections
Trump Fails in Push to Slash Ed. Budget
Betsy DeVos Weighing Action On School Discipline Policy
Guidelines Spur Dismissal Of Special Education Complaints
Vanita Gupta & Catherine E. Lhamon School Safety Shouldn’t Come at the Cost of Justice
Anthon Brandt & David Eacleman The Gentrification of Creativity
Letters
TopSchoolJobs Recruitment Marketplace
Frank Straub: Sarah Solano & John Rosiak Five Steps to Avert School Violence
Education Week - April 11, 2018 - Labor Unrest Fueling Hopes Of Democrats
Education Week - April 11, 2018 - 2
Education Week - April 11, 2018 - 3
Education Week - April 11, 2018 - Report Roundup
Education Week - April 11, 2018 - 5
Education Week - April 11, 2018 - Does Praise for Good Effort Backfire for Teenagers?
Education Week - April 11, 2018 - Schools Have Gotten Safer Over Time
Education Week - April 11, 2018 - Effort Helps Teachers Sift Out Overlooked Gifted Students
Education Week - April 11, 2018 - H.S. Diploma Criteria Fall Short, Study Finds
Education Week - April 11, 2018 - Schools Re-Examine Facebook’s Data-Privacy Protections
Education Week - April 11, 2018 - 11
Education Week - April 11, 2018 - 12
Education Week - April 11, 2018 - 13
Education Week - April 11, 2018 - 14
Education Week - April 11, 2018 - 15
Education Week - April 11, 2018 - Trump Fails in Push to Slash Ed. Budget
Education Week - April 11, 2018 - Betsy DeVos Weighing Action On School Discipline Policy
Education Week - April 11, 2018 - Guidelines Spur Dismissal Of Special Education Complaints
Education Week - April 11, 2018 - 19
Education Week - April 11, 2018 - 20
Education Week - April 11, 2018 - 21
Education Week - April 11, 2018 - Anthon Brandt & David Eacleman The Gentrification of Creativity
Education Week - April 11, 2018 - 23
Education Week - April 11, 2018 - Letters
Education Week - April 11, 2018 - TopSchoolJobs Recruitment Marketplace
Education Week - April 11, 2018 - 26
Education Week - April 11, 2018 - 27
Education Week - April 11, 2018 - Frank Straub: Sarah Solano & John Rosiak Five Steps to Avert School Violence
Education Week - April 11, 2018 - CW1
Education Week - April 11, 2018 - CW2
Education Week - April 11, 2018 - CW3
Education Week - April 11, 2018 - CW4
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