Education Week - April 5, 2017 - 8


Principals' Test Not Predictive of Success on Job, Study Finds
Exam results show
racial disparities
By Denisa R. Superville
New research has found essentially no positive correlation between how would-be principals
perform on a widely used licensure
exam and their success as school
leaders.
The study, which looked at principals' performance on the School
Leaders Licensure Assessment
(SLLA) and on-the-job evaluations,
student achievement, and teacher
surveys, over a 10-year period in
Tennessee, also found that nonwhite candidates were about three
times less likely than white candidates to pass the exam.
The researchers found that candidates with higher passing scores
were more likely to be hired as
principals. And because Tennessee has the lowest cut score among
the states that use the SLLA, disparities in passing rates for white
and nonwhite candidates could be
greater in states that set higher cut
scores, said Jason A. Grissom, the
lead researcher and an associate
professor of public policy and education at Vanderbilt University in
Nashville, Tenn.
The study's findings could have
major implications for districts and

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states beyond Tennessee, where
K-12 officials are trying to increase
the numbers of racially and ethnically diverse educators. Students of
color now make up a slight majority
of public school enrollment, but the
education workforce remains largely
white.
"There are some suggestions here
that there may be some value in the
exam, but it's not showing up in the
kinds of job-performance measures
that we really care about," Grissom
said. "If we are seeing this barrier to
diversity but the payoff on the other
side is not very clear, then I suggest
that we really need to look at this
very closely, about what is the continued justification for using this
exam."

Widely Used Test
The SLLA is used in 19 states
and the territories of Guam and
the U.S. Virgin Islands. The fourhour computer-based exam is one
of the multiple measures that
states use in awarding principal
licenses and that districts use in
making hiring decisions, according
to Grissom's research. In Tennessee, for example, principals must
also have at least three years of
experience as an educator, complete a state-approved preparation
program, and receive a recommendation from such a program.
Officials at the Tennessee educa-

tion department and the Princeton,
N.J.-based Educational Testing
Service, which designed the SLLA,
stress that the test is not meant
to be a predictor of on-the-job
success.
"Licensing exams like the SLLA
are designed to protect the public
from practitioners who lack basic
competence, not to predict job success," Thomas Ewing, an ETS
spokesman, said in a statement.
T h e e x a m wa s " d e v e l o p e d
through a rigorous process to assess the skills, knowledge, and
abilities that licensing authorities
have determined school leaders
need when they enter the profession," he said.
A committee from diverse backgrounds developed the exam, and
the test questions were reviewed
"for possible unfairness to any
group," Ewing said. The exam also
goes through statistical analyses to
ensure it is fair to test-takers, regardless of race, ethnicity, or gender, he said.
Paul Fleming, Tennessee's assistant education commissioner of
teachers and leaders, said the report's findings were similar to other
research on the use of the SLLA.
The department has taken several steps over the years to reduce
the disparities in passing rates for
whites and nonwhites and to ensure
that the licensing process does not
intentionally exclude nonwhites

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8 | EDUCATION WEEK | April 5, 2017 | www.edweek.org

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*	Joe Trahan, curriculum
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Content
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and minorities, he said. One of those
measures, he said, was setting a
lower cut score.

Understanding Disparities
The difference in passing rates
between white and nonwhite testtakers-12 percentage points-
was surprising, Grissom said. The
researchers could not explain why
based on the data they had, and
they attempted to find some answers.
They theorized that principalcandidates may sort into programs
of varying quality, and that based
on the test results, it was possible
nonwhite candidates graduated
from lower-quality programs. But
their analysis showed that racial
and ethnic disparities in passing
rates existed even among candidates who graduated from the
same program.
The researchers did find positive
relationships between assistant
principals' performance on the SLLA
and evaluations from their supervisors once they were on the job.
But even in those cases, the positive relationships were present in
some, but not all, the years, and
the reasons why they were more
evident for assistant principals
but not principals were unclear,
Grissom said.
The SLLA is based on the Interstate School Leaders Licensure

Consortium Standards, which set
benchmarks for what principals
should know and be able to do to
effectively lead schools. They were
redesigned in 2015 as the Professional Standards for Educational
Leaders, with deeper emphasis on
instructional leadership and care
for students.
Ewing said the ETS is reviewing
the SLLA to ensure it aligns to the
new standards.
Grissom said there were a few
possibilities why researchers did
not find a positive correlation between the exam scores and principals' job performance. One could be
that the skills and knowledge that
the test tries to assess don't capture the competencies that school
leaders need to be effective.
"School leadership is not a set
of knowledge and skills," he said.
"School leadership is a set of behaviors, and implementation, and
relationships ... and so forth, and
that's really complex."
Not all states use an assessment,
and some, such as Massachusetts,
have developed their own. One
option would be to remove the
licensure assessment, Grissom
said.
"An alternate state strategy
would be to invest very heavily in
administrator preparation, in ensuring high-quality preparation
across all approved programs in
the state," he said.


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Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of Education Week - April 5, 2017

Education Week - April 5, 2017
ENDREW F. RULING
High Court Ruling Firms Up Goal Posts On Spec. Ed. Rights
Teachers Not Shying From Political Topics
New Dimension to Kansas’ Funding Puzzle
Title II Funds Facing the Ax Under Trump
School Rape Case Inflames Immigration Fight
News in Brief
Report Roundup
States Get More Leeway on Identifying ‘Dropout Factories’
Course Access: A Different Way To Expand School Choice?
Sydney Bruner, a junior at Prairie High School in Cottonwood, Idaho, studies for a class presentation. The state is one of several that offer course choice.
No Link Between Test and Principals’ Success, Study Shows
Teacher-Prep Slow to Embrace Social-Emotional Learning
DIGITAL DIRECTIONS: Digital Tools Target ESSA Parent-Engagement Mandate
After-School, Summer Learning Efforts at Budget Risk
Special Education Rulings Put High Court Nominee on Hot Seat
Greg Richmond: Why I’m Worried About the Future of Charter Schools
Scott Laband: We Must Not Abandon Teacher Evaluation
Kenneth Ward: Mentoring: A Common-Sense Solution for At-Risk Youths
Letters
TopSchoolJobs Recruitment Marketplace
Van Schoales: The New Teacher-Evaluation Laws: Education’s Pyrrhic Victory?
Education Week - April 5, 2017 - School Rape Case Inflames Immigration Fight
Education Week - April 5, 2017 - 2
Education Week - April 5, 2017 - 3
Education Week - April 5, 2017 - News in Brief
Education Week - April 5, 2017 - Report Roundup
Education Week - April 5, 2017 - States Get More Leeway on Identifying ‘Dropout Factories’
Education Week - April 5, 2017 - Sydney Bruner, a junior at Prairie High School in Cottonwood, Idaho, studies for a class presentation. The state is one of several that offer course choice.
Education Week - April 5, 2017 - No Link Between Test and Principals’ Success, Study Shows
Education Week - April 5, 2017 - 9
Education Week - April 5, 2017 - Teacher-Prep Slow to Embrace Social-Emotional Learning
Education Week - April 5, 2017 - DIGITAL DIRECTIONS: Digital Tools Target ESSA Parent-Engagement Mandate
Education Week - April 5, 2017 - 12
Education Week - April 5, 2017 - 13
Education Week - April 5, 2017 - 14
Education Week - April 5, 2017 - Special Education Rulings Put High Court Nominee on Hot Seat
Education Week - April 5, 2017 - 16
Education Week - April 5, 2017 - 17
Education Week - April 5, 2017 - 18
Education Week - April 5, 2017 - 19
Education Week - April 5, 2017 - 20
Education Week - April 5, 2017 - 21
Education Week - April 5, 2017 - Scott Laband: We Must Not Abandon Teacher Evaluation
Education Week - April 5, 2017 - Kenneth Ward: Mentoring: A Common-Sense Solution for At-Risk Youths
Education Week - April 5, 2017 - Letters
Education Week - April 5, 2017 - 25
Education Week - April 5, 2017 - TopSchoolJobs Recruitment Marketplace
Education Week - April 5, 2017 - 27
Education Week - April 5, 2017 - Van Schoales: The New Teacher-Evaluation Laws: Education’s Pyrrhic Victory?
Education Week - April 5, 2017 - CW1
Education Week - April 5, 2017 - CW2
Education Week - April 5, 2017 - CW3
Education Week - April 5, 2017 - CW4
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