Education Week - April 5, 2017 - 28


COMMENTARY

The New Teacher-Evaluation Laws:
Education's Pyrrhic Victory?

B

By Van Schoales

ack in May 2010, hundreds of
the nation's education foundation, policy, and practice
elites were gathered for the
NewSchools Venture Fund
meeting in Washington to
celebrate and learn from the
most recent education reform
policy victories in my home state of Colorado
and across the country.
The opening speeches highlighted the
recent passage of Colorado Senate Bill 10191-a dramatic law which required that 50
percent of a teacher evaluation be based upon
student academic growth. This offered a bold
new vision for how teachers would be evaluated and whether they would gain or lose
tenure based on the merits of their impact on
student achievement.
Colorado would be one of several "ground
zeros" for reforming teacher evaluation in
the country. Many, including myself, thought
these new state policies would allow our best
teachers to shine. They would finally have
useful feedback, be differentiated on an objective scale of effectiveness, and lose tenure
if they weren't performing. Teachers would be
treated like other professionals and less like
interchangeable widgets.
Colorado's law and similar ones in other
states appeared to be sound, research-backed
policy formulated by education reform's own
"whiz kids." We could point to Ivy League research that made a clear case for dramatic
changes to the current system. There were
large federal incentives, in addition to private
philanthropy fueled by the Bill & Melinda
Gates Foundation, encouraging such changes.
And to pass these teacher-evaluation laws,
we built a coalition of reform-minded Democrats and Republicans that also included the
American Federation of Teachers. Reformers
were confident we had a clear mandate.
And yet. Implementation did not live up to
the promises.
Colorado Department of Education data
released in February show that the distribution of teacher effectiveness in the state
looks much as it did before passage of the
bill. Eighty-eight percent of Colorado teachers were rated effective or highly effective, 4
percent were partially effective, 7.8 percent of
teachers were not rated, and less than 1 percent were deemed ineffective. In other words,
we leveraged everything we could and not
only didn't advance teacher effectiveness, we
created a massive bureaucracy and alienated
many in the field.
What happened?
First, the data. We built a policy on growth
data that only partially existed. The majority
of teachers teach in states' untested subject
areas. This meant processes for measuring
student growth outside of literacy or math
were often thoughtlessly slapped together to
meet the new evaluation law. For example,
some elementary school art-teacher evalu-

| INSIDE |

22

WHY I'M WORRIED
ABOUT THE FUTURE
OF CHARTER SCHOOLS

"

It was wrong to
force everyone
in a state to have
one 'best'
evaluation
system."

Jonathan Bouw for Education Week

ations were linked to student performance
on multiple-choice district art tests, while
Spanish-teacher evaluations were tied to
how the school did on the state's math and
literacy tests. Even for those who teach the
grades and subjects with state tests, some
debate remains on how much growth should
be weighted for high-stakes decisions on
teacher ratings. And we knew that few teachers accepted having their evaluations heavily
weighted on student growth.
Second, there has been little embrace of the
state's new teacher-evaluation system even
from administrators frustrated with the former system. There were exceptions, namely
the districts of Denver and Harrison, which
had far fewer highly effective teachers than
elsewhere in the state. Both districts invested
time and resources in the development of a
system that more accurately reflects a teacher's impact on student learning. Yet most
Colorado districts were forced to create new
evaluation systems in alignment with the
new law or adopt the state system, and most
did the latter. This meant that these districts
focused on compliance (and checking off evaluation boxes), rather than using the law to
support teacher improvement.
Third, we continue to have a leadership
problem. Research shows that teacher evaluators are still not likely to give direct and
honest feedback to teachers. A Brown University study on teacher evaluators in these new
systems shows that the evaluators are three
times more likely to rate teachers higher
than they should be rated. This is a problem

23

28 | EDUCATION WEEK | April 5, 2017 | www.edweek.org/go/commentary

MENTORING:
A COMMON-SENSE
SOLUTION FOR
AT-RISK YOUTHS

of school and district culture, not a fault with
the evaluation rubric.
Fourth, all of Colorado's 238 charter schools
waived out of the system.
We wanted a new system to help professionalize teaching and address the real disparities in teacher quality. Instead, we got an
18-page state rubric and 345-page user guide
for teacher evaluation.
We didn't understand how most school systems would respond to these teacher-evaluation laws. We failed to track implementation
and didn't check our assumptions along the
way.
The new teacher-evaluation laws in Colorado and now 40 other states seem a classic example of putting policy ahead of practice. Great in theory, but unrealistic when
it comes to implementation. The laws were
constructed around a particular set of assumptions about school district capacity and
commitment. We underestimated the propensity of districts to morph "innovations" into
existing practice and treat the new evaluation laws as just one more compliance requirement. We also failed to understand the
political and district costs of tying such laws
to federal incentives, particularly given a
strong ethos of local control in many school
districts, like most of those in Colorado.
As a longtime educator and education advocate, I got caught up in the hubris. I helped
construct and strongly supported the teacherevaluation law but didn't anticipate how
the state education department and school
districts would turn the law into practice.

24

LETTERS TO
THE EDITOR

I figured it would be difficult to end up with
something any worse than what was practice
in 2009.
I believe the intention was right, but it was
wrong to force everyone in a state to have one
"best" evaluation system.
Going forward will be a challenge. Most
teachers' unions have not supported these
new evaluation laws and will look for any
excuse to gut them and go back to the world
where there were no objective measures of
teacher effectiveness.
But we need to dig into what has happened-to understand what worked, what
did not, and why. It's not too late to acknowledge our mistakes and switch course. Instead
of doubling down on ineffective policies, we
must confront the quagmire and work toward
a better solution. We should work back from
the practice in our best schools and districts.
Improving education requires that push forward, and it won't happen overnight. n
VAN SCHOALES is the CEO of A+ Colorado, a
community-based "action tank" for education
reform. A former teacher and school leader, he is
in his third decade of working to improve public
education.
SEE RELATED CONTENT:

22

25

WE MUST NOT
ABANDON TEACHER
EVALUATION

STUDENT VOICE:
BULLYING THROUGH
THE EYES OF A
STUDENT ARTIST


http://www.edweek.org/go/commentary

Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of Education Week - April 5, 2017

Education Week - April 5, 2017
ENDREW F. RULING
High Court Ruling Firms Up Goal Posts On Spec. Ed. Rights
Teachers Not Shying From Political Topics
New Dimension to Kansas’ Funding Puzzle
Title II Funds Facing the Ax Under Trump
School Rape Case Inflames Immigration Fight
News in Brief
Report Roundup
States Get More Leeway on Identifying ‘Dropout Factories’
Course Access: A Different Way To Expand School Choice?
Sydney Bruner, a junior at Prairie High School in Cottonwood, Idaho, studies for a class presentation. The state is one of several that offer course choice.
No Link Between Test and Principals’ Success, Study Shows
Teacher-Prep Slow to Embrace Social-Emotional Learning
DIGITAL DIRECTIONS: Digital Tools Target ESSA Parent-Engagement Mandate
After-School, Summer Learning Efforts at Budget Risk
Special Education Rulings Put High Court Nominee on Hot Seat
Greg Richmond: Why I’m Worried About the Future of Charter Schools
Scott Laband: We Must Not Abandon Teacher Evaluation
Kenneth Ward: Mentoring: A Common-Sense Solution for At-Risk Youths
Letters
TopSchoolJobs Recruitment Marketplace
Van Schoales: The New Teacher-Evaluation Laws: Education’s Pyrrhic Victory?
Education Week - April 5, 2017 - School Rape Case Inflames Immigration Fight
Education Week - April 5, 2017 - 2
Education Week - April 5, 2017 - 3
Education Week - April 5, 2017 - News in Brief
Education Week - April 5, 2017 - Report Roundup
Education Week - April 5, 2017 - States Get More Leeway on Identifying ‘Dropout Factories’
Education Week - April 5, 2017 - Sydney Bruner, a junior at Prairie High School in Cottonwood, Idaho, studies for a class presentation. The state is one of several that offer course choice.
Education Week - April 5, 2017 - No Link Between Test and Principals’ Success, Study Shows
Education Week - April 5, 2017 - 9
Education Week - April 5, 2017 - Teacher-Prep Slow to Embrace Social-Emotional Learning
Education Week - April 5, 2017 - DIGITAL DIRECTIONS: Digital Tools Target ESSA Parent-Engagement Mandate
Education Week - April 5, 2017 - 12
Education Week - April 5, 2017 - 13
Education Week - April 5, 2017 - 14
Education Week - April 5, 2017 - Special Education Rulings Put High Court Nominee on Hot Seat
Education Week - April 5, 2017 - 16
Education Week - April 5, 2017 - 17
Education Week - April 5, 2017 - 18
Education Week - April 5, 2017 - 19
Education Week - April 5, 2017 - 20
Education Week - April 5, 2017 - 21
Education Week - April 5, 2017 - Scott Laband: We Must Not Abandon Teacher Evaluation
Education Week - April 5, 2017 - Kenneth Ward: Mentoring: A Common-Sense Solution for At-Risk Youths
Education Week - April 5, 2017 - Letters
Education Week - April 5, 2017 - 25
Education Week - April 5, 2017 - TopSchoolJobs Recruitment Marketplace
Education Week - April 5, 2017 - 27
Education Week - April 5, 2017 - Van Schoales: The New Teacher-Evaluation Laws: Education’s Pyrrhic Victory?
Education Week - April 5, 2017 - CW1
Education Week - April 5, 2017 - CW2
Education Week - April 5, 2017 - CW3
Education Week - April 5, 2017 - CW4
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