Education Week - April 1, 2015 - 20

1965-2015 The ESEA at 50
K-12 Statute
Still Focus
Of Debate
CONTINUED FROM PAGE 19
The summit was a turning point
in the esea's trajectory, said Chester
E. Finn Jr., who served in the Education
Department under President
Reagan. "You could almost break
the 50 years" since the passage of
the esea into two 25-year periods, he
said: "Pre- and post-Charlottesville."
But No Child Left Behind-passed
overwhelmingly in the burst of bipartisanship
that followed the Sept. 11,
2001, attacks-may have gone too
far in ratcheting up the federal role,
even for many of those who initially
supported the law.
The esea law has some desirable
features, especially its focus on outcomes
for poor and minority children,
said Richard A. Carranza, the
superintendent of the 57,000-student
San Francisco school district,
but it also has major downsides.
"You have to continously fight
against the stream. And the stream
under nclb is to teach to the test,"
said Mr. Carranza, one of a handful of
big-city superintendents who recently
met with President Barack Obama to
discuss what needs to change about
the law. "If you don't do well on the
test, you get a label assigned to your
school that you're a failing school; ...
that [narrows] the curriculum."
Overdue for Rewrite
The nclb law was never intended
to go 13 years without an update-
it's been on the books without revision
longer than any previous version
of the esea. But a polarized
Congress has been unable to renew
the legislation, despite numerous
attempts dating back to 2007.
Most recently, a revision that
would significantly scale back the
federal role in school turnarounds,
teacher quality, standards, and
accountability systems is on hold,
having failed to gain sufficient support
from a contingent of Republicans
in the House because it wasn't
conservative enough, in their view.
Meanwhile, Secretary Duncan
has issued a series of waivers easing
many of the mandates at the heart of
the law, requiring states to embrace
the Obama administration's education
redesign priorities, including rigorous
standards and teacher evaluations
tied in part to student outcomes.
Mr. Duncan has described the waivers
as a new way forward when it
comes to a state-federal partnership.
But not everyone sees it that way.
The Common Core State Standards
have come under siege in a number
of states in part because Mr. Duncan
encouraged states to adopt
them in order to get waivers of certain
nclb provisions.
And the back-and-forth negotiations
over the finer points of the accountability
plans created under
the waivers haven't gone well, either.
For example, Sen. Lamar Alexander,
R-Tenn., the chairman of
the Senate education committee,
has accused Secretary Duncan of
playing a game of "Mother May I?"
with states, in which they have to
beg for every bit of federal leeway to
advance their own goals.
It's the right time for the federal
government to take a step back, Mr.
Finn said. In the years since the passage
of the nclb law-much less the
original esea-states and districts
have become much more thoughtful
and sophisticated when it comes to
educational improvement, he said.
If the federal government takes a
lighter approach to accountability,
"it's not like we're cutting the engine
on the boat and therefore it's going
dead in the water," he said.
President George W. Bush signs the No Child Left Behind Act,
which significantly expands the ESEA's testing requirements. It
calls for states to assess students annually in reading and math
in grades 3-8 and once in high school, as opposed to certain
grade spans only. The law also says that states are to use
specific interventions-namely, public school choice and free
tutoring-with schools that fail to make sufficient progress. And
it requires that all teachers be "highly qualified." The legislation
was approved with overwhelming bipartisan support in Congress in
December of 2001. The U.S. Senate passed it 87 to 10, and the U.S.
House of Representatives approved it 381 to 41.
But Margaret Spellings, who
served as education secretary under
President George W. Bush and was
an architect of the nclb law while
working as a top White House aide,
doesn't buy that argument.
"Locals often like to have the cover
of 'the federal devil made me do it,' "
Ms. Spellings said. Left to their own
devices, states are more likely to succumb
to public pressure, she added.
But the way policy is going, she said,
"we may test [Mr. Finn's] theory."
Next Steps: Unclear
Meanwhile, others say a lack of
focus on factors beyond school, such
as resource inequality, meant that
the esea would always have limited
reach when it comes to really improving
student outcomes.
"I think [the esea] didn't really do
as much as it could have, or as much
as was needed to be done, to improve
the education of the people we initially
targeted," said Mr. Gordon,
whose experience during the Johnson
administration included being
tasked to conduct an early evaluation
of the federal Head Start preschool
program. "I would vote for [the law
today], but I wouldn't vote for it with
the same confidence I had in '65 that
it would solve all our problems."
Pedro Noguera, a professor of education
at New York University, says
the testing and accountability focus
has forced something of a detour
from the original purpose of the law.
Jan. 21, 2015 Senate education
committee Chairman Sen. Lamar
Alexander, R-Tenn., center, and
ranking member Sen. Patty Murray,
D-Wash., listen to testimony during a
hearing looking at ways to fix the No
Child Left Behind Act. Congress has
been grappling with reauthorizion of
the law since 2007.
"We've moved away from the goal [of
equity]," he said, "when we should
have been going deeper and further."
How should the next iteration of
the esea tackle the political puzzle
of the right federal role in K-12?
Policymakers may not find an answer
anytime soon.
Although congressional lawmakers
are eager to rewrite the current law,
some doubt whether a highly partisan
Congress can advance a major
initiative on education, or anything
else. Meanwhile, the Obama administration
has less than two years
remaining, and it's unclear if the
next administration-Democratic
or Republican-will continue with
the waivers or come up with its own
twist on the esea.
"What's happening now is that
mistaken policy is being cleaned
up," Mr. Jennings said. "People
will want to throw everything out."
The problem, he said, is that "we're
going to throw out the good with the
bad. We need another vision."
Library intern Connor Smith contributed
to this story.
Congress is behind on reauthorizing the esea, which had been
due for renewal in 2007, but it adopts major education provisions
as part of the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act. That
economic-stimulus measure, signed by President Barack Obama,
includes some $100 billion in education aid, some of it money
for new competitive-grant programs. The Obama administration
ultimately uses $4 billion to create the Race to the Top, which
awards grants to a dozen states willing to embrace the president's
priorities on school turnarounds, state data systems, standards,
assessments, and teacher evaluation. The program also financed
more than $350 million in grants to design to new tests aligned to
the Common Core State Standards.
INTERACTIVE TIMELINE:
www.edweek.org/go/
esea-timeline
With ESEA reauthorization still stalled in
Congress, the Obama administration offers
states waivers easing many of the mandates
of the No Child Left Behind law. To get the
flexibility, states must embrace standards
that will prepare students for college
and the workforce, teacher evaluation
that incorporates student outcomes, and
aggressive school turnarounds.
THE ESEA: A LOOK
UNDER THE HOOD
T
he Elementary and
Secondary Education
Act is divided into
10 "titles," covering
a wide range of federal
education policy and
funding issues. Here's a look
at those parts of the current
version of the law, the No
Child Left Behind Act.
TITLE I
Improving the Academic
Achievement of the
Disadvantaged - The heart of
the law, which sets out rules for
formula grants to help districts
educate disadvantaged students.
Title I includes provisions related
to accountability, annual testing,
school improvement, and content
standards.
TITLE II
Preparing, Training, and
Recruiting High-Quality Teachers
and Principals -Governs formula
grants to states for improving
educator quality. The money can be
used for such purposes as teacher
recruitment and retention and
class-size reduction.
TITLE III
Language Instruction for
Limited-English-Proficient and
Immigrant Students -Allocates
formula grants to states to
help English-language learners
succeed academically and learn
English.
TITLE IV
21st Century Schools -Governs
programs in a range of areas
that include violence prevention,
school climate, and after-school
initiatives.
20 | EDUCATION WEEK | April 1, 2015 | www.edweek.org
2002
2009
2011
Susan Walsh/AP-File
http://www.edweek.org/go/esea-timeliine http://www.edweek.org/go/esea-timeliine http://www.edweek.org

Education Week - April 1, 2015

Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of Education Week - April 1, 2015

K-12 Law’s Legacy Blend of Idealism, Policy Tensions
Testing Security Prompts Scrutiny Of Social Media
Virtual Spec. Ed. Is Evolving Option
Turnover at Top Can Leave Funders Wary
Education Week - April 1, 2015
News in Brief
Report Roundup
New Studies Affirm Impact of Board-Certified Teachers
Blogs of the Week
Honored Educator Decries Current Climate for Teaching
‘Opt-Out’ Push Sparks Queries For Guidance
Texas Lawmakers Wrangle A Herd of Education Measures
A View From the Top As the Policy Clock Ticks
Blogs of the Week
TYRONE HOWARD: Decriminalizing School Discipline: Why Black Males Matter
THE ESEA AT 50: Perspectives From the Archives
REBECCA GIVENS ROLLAND: The Ticking Clock of American Education
Letters
TopSchoolJobs Recruitment Marketplace
MARILYN BURNS: What Reading Instruction Can Teach Us About Math Instruction
Education Week - April 1, 2015 - Education Week - April 1, 2015
Education Week - April 1, 2015 - 2
Education Week - April 1, 2015 - 3
Education Week - April 1, 2015 - News in Brief
Education Week - April 1, 2015 - Report Roundup
Education Week - April 1, 2015 - New Studies Affirm Impact of Board-Certified Teachers
Education Week - April 1, 2015 - Blogs of the Week
Education Week - April 1, 2015 - Honored Educator Decries Current Climate for Teaching
Education Week - April 1, 2015 - 9
Education Week - April 1, 2015 - 10
Education Week - April 1, 2015 - 11
Education Week - April 1, 2015 - 12
Education Week - April 1, 2015 - 13
Education Week - April 1, 2015 - 14
Education Week - April 1, 2015 - Texas Lawmakers Wrangle A Herd of Education Measures
Education Week - April 1, 2015 - Blogs of the Week
Education Week - April 1, 2015 - 17
Education Week - April 1, 2015 - 18
Education Week - April 1, 2015 - 19
Education Week - April 1, 2015 - 20
Education Week - April 1, 2015 - 21
Education Week - April 1, 2015 - 22
Education Week - April 1, 2015 - 23
Education Week - April 1, 2015 - THE ESEA AT 50: Perspectives From the Archives
Education Week - April 1, 2015 - REBECCA GIVENS ROLLAND: The Ticking Clock of American Education
Education Week - April 1, 2015 - Letters
Education Week - April 1, 2015 - 27
Education Week - April 1, 2015 - TopSchoolJobs Recruitment Marketplace
Education Week - April 1, 2015 - 29
Education Week - April 1, 2015 - 30
Education Week - April 1, 2015 - 31
Education Week - April 1, 2015 - MARILYN BURNS: What Reading Instruction Can Teach Us About Math Instruction
Education Week - April 1, 2015 - CT1
Education Week - April 1, 2015 - CT2
Education Week - April 1, 2015 - CT3
Education Week - April 1, 2015 - CT4
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