Education Week - April 1, 2015 - 18

1965-2015 The ESEA at 50
Law's Enduring Legacy:
Push-Pull Over Policy
CONTINUED FROM PAGE 1
federal-state equation, pushing back
against the Education Department
on the current version of the law he
once helped implement. His state
has had run-ins with U.S. Secretary
of Education Arne Duncan on issues
ranging from teacher evaluation and
accountability to state data systems.
Given his past experience in
Washington, Mr. Kirst sympathizes
with Mr. Duncan. "He's facing
many of the very same issues
we did" in the 1960s, Mr. Kirst said.
Consensus Unraveled
After hitting a high-water mark
with bipartisan passage in late
2001 of the No Child Left Behind
Act-an esea overhaul that gave
the U.S. Department of Education
unprecedented sway over how
states measured student achievement
and intervened in failing
schools-the seeming consensus
among policymakers around
a strong federal role in holding
schools accountable for student performance
has unraveled.
It's clear from the current tone of
the debate and bills introduced in
Congress that the next version of
the esea will give states a lot more
control over key parts of the law,
including accountability, teacher
quality, and spending.
But lawmakers and the White
House have been at an impasse for
nearly a decade on just how far to
go in shrinking the federal footprint
without jeopardizing the esea's
focus on providing an equitable education
to the poorest children.
That conflict has its roots in the
original legislation, which was born
with an identity crisis of sorts. The
1965 law sought to target new federal
funding-more than $1 billion
in the first year, with few strings
attached-to areas with high concentrations
of poor students. But
the law itself was somewhat vague
when it came to targeting disadvantaged
children, in part to build the
necessary support in Congress to
pass it quickly.
"There was no strategy around
how all this was going to work with
respect to a process for improving
education," said Christopher T.
THE NATION'S MAIN
K-12 EDUCATION LAW:
A TIMELINE
The Elementary and Secondary
Education Act has seen a number
of changes in its 50-year history.
Here's a look at how Congress
and the U.S. Department of
Education have reshaped the law
over the past five decades:
Cross, a former assistant secretary
in President George H.W. Bush's
administration who also served
as a top aide to Republicans on
the House education committee in
the 1970s. "It was just, 'These are
poor districts, they need the money.
Trust people to do the right thing.'
It's come back to haunt everybody
now," said Mr. Cross, now the chairman
of the Bethesda-based consulting
group Cross & Joftus.
Lingering Echoes
The original esea rocketed
through Congress in less than
100 days-a turnaround time that
today sounds astonishing, considering
that lawmakers have been
grappling for more than eight years
with writing a successor to the nclb
version of the law.
But, as it turns out, much of the
rhetoric against federal involvement
in K-12 education during congressional
consideration of the esea in
1965 don't sound much different
from discussions about rewriting
the law in 2015.
In the 1960s, conservative Republicans
and Southern Democrats-
some representing states that were
struggling with or resisting desegregation-argued
that the esea and its
attached aid would give the federal
government a reason to interfere
with local control of schools.
In late March of 1965, Rep. Frank
T. Bow, R-Ohio, said the Johnson administration
and supporters of the
bill "are eager to promote what they
call the excellence of educational opportunity,
and they can do so only by
imposing their views about curriculum,
teaching methods, and textbooks
on the local school districts.
... This bill is the foot in the door for
federal control of education, make no
mistake about it."
Meanwhile, behind the scenes,
Sen. Robert F. Kennedy, D-N.Y.,
made the case for a stronger federal
role. And since the federal government
was about to pour additional
money into schools, he wanted language
requiring a careful assessment
of whether Title I actually
improved student outcomes.
"We really ought to have some
evaluation in there, and some
measurement as to whether any
FROM TOP:
Sept. 29, 1989 President George H. W.
Bush speaks during ceremonies
concluding the governors' education
summit in Charlottesville, Va.
The summit marked a pivotal point
in national goal-setting in the areas of
educational accountability and standards.
Jan. 8, 2002 President George W. Bush
signs the No Child Left Behind Act at
Hamilton High School in Hamilton, Ohio.
The NCLB law updated the ESEA and
significantly ratcheted up the federal
role in education.
President Lyndon B. Johnson signs
the Elementary and Secondary
Education Act, which significantly
expands the federal role in K-12
education. The law's signature
program, Title I, is aimed at
helping districts cover the cost
of educating disadvantaged
students.
Congress adds to the ESEA by
incorporating new programs
and titles, including for migrant
children, neglected or delinquent
children, and by passing the
Bilingual Education Act.
After reports show that school
districts have misused Title I
aid, Congress tightens up the
program, adding language that
states the federal money should
"supplement, not supplant"
money spent by states and
localities.
President Jimmy Carter signs
a reauthorization of the law
specifying that schools in which at
least 75 percent of children are in
poverty can operate "schoolwide"
programs with their Title I funds,
rather than spending that money
only on their low-income children.
18 | EDUCATION WEEK | April 1, 2015 | www.edweek.org
1965
1968
1970
Ron Edmonds/AP-File
1978
Steve Helber/AP-File
http://www.edweek.org

Education Week - April 1, 2015

Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of Education Week - April 1, 2015

K-12 Law’s Legacy Blend of Idealism, Policy Tensions
Testing Security Prompts Scrutiny Of Social Media
Virtual Spec. Ed. Is Evolving Option
Turnover at Top Can Leave Funders Wary
Education Week - April 1, 2015
News in Brief
Report Roundup
New Studies Affirm Impact of Board-Certified Teachers
Blogs of the Week
Honored Educator Decries Current Climate for Teaching
‘Opt-Out’ Push Sparks Queries For Guidance
Texas Lawmakers Wrangle A Herd of Education Measures
A View From the Top As the Policy Clock Ticks
Blogs of the Week
TYRONE HOWARD: Decriminalizing School Discipline: Why Black Males Matter
THE ESEA AT 50: Perspectives From the Archives
REBECCA GIVENS ROLLAND: The Ticking Clock of American Education
Letters
TopSchoolJobs Recruitment Marketplace
MARILYN BURNS: What Reading Instruction Can Teach Us About Math Instruction
Education Week - April 1, 2015 - Education Week - April 1, 2015
Education Week - April 1, 2015 - 2
Education Week - April 1, 2015 - 3
Education Week - April 1, 2015 - News in Brief
Education Week - April 1, 2015 - Report Roundup
Education Week - April 1, 2015 - New Studies Affirm Impact of Board-Certified Teachers
Education Week - April 1, 2015 - Blogs of the Week
Education Week - April 1, 2015 - Honored Educator Decries Current Climate for Teaching
Education Week - April 1, 2015 - 9
Education Week - April 1, 2015 - 10
Education Week - April 1, 2015 - 11
Education Week - April 1, 2015 - 12
Education Week - April 1, 2015 - 13
Education Week - April 1, 2015 - 14
Education Week - April 1, 2015 - Texas Lawmakers Wrangle A Herd of Education Measures
Education Week - April 1, 2015 - Blogs of the Week
Education Week - April 1, 2015 - 17
Education Week - April 1, 2015 - 18
Education Week - April 1, 2015 - 19
Education Week - April 1, 2015 - 20
Education Week - April 1, 2015 - 21
Education Week - April 1, 2015 - 22
Education Week - April 1, 2015 - 23
Education Week - April 1, 2015 - THE ESEA AT 50: Perspectives From the Archives
Education Week - April 1, 2015 - REBECCA GIVENS ROLLAND: The Ticking Clock of American Education
Education Week - April 1, 2015 - Letters
Education Week - April 1, 2015 - 27
Education Week - April 1, 2015 - TopSchoolJobs Recruitment Marketplace
Education Week - April 1, 2015 - 29
Education Week - April 1, 2015 - 30
Education Week - April 1, 2015 - 31
Education Week - April 1, 2015 - MARILYN BURNS: What Reading Instruction Can Teach Us About Math Instruction
Education Week - April 1, 2015 - CT1
Education Week - April 1, 2015 - CT2
Education Week - April 1, 2015 - CT3
Education Week - April 1, 2015 - CT4
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