Education Week - March 31, 2021 - 20

The Story of Pandemic Learning
And Suicide Is Still Being Written

W

8%

Only
of students
identified
" interacting with
teachers/school
employees " as an
activity that helped
them maintain a

positive state of
mind in school
during the
pandemic.
SOURCE:
EdWeek Research Center

e don't yet understand the effects
of remote learning
on student mental
health. As parents,
educators, mentalhealth professionals, and researchers, we must distinguish among
projections of risk (what we think might happen),
current practice (what is actually happening), and
our next steps (what we think should happen next).
It is not a foregone conclusion that remote learning
will have overall negative effects. This story is still
being written.
During the COVID-19 pandemic, a number of
risks associated with suicide may be elevated-
including social isolation, barriers to care, access to
lethal means, and personal and economic loss. Over
the past year, there have been numerous reports
related to suicide risk, including some heartbreaking
incidents of death. School communities must
recognize warning signs for suicide, provide
preventative services, and link kids to care.
These efforts must be rooted in what we know to
be true about suicide. First and foremost, this means
focusing on how suicide is preventable and how
suicide-related thoughts and behaviors are treatable.
This also means acknowledging the complexity
of suicide, which relates to multiple factors
(environmental, biological, and psychological risk)
and cannot be attributed to any single factor.
A recent article published by the American
Medical Association indicates that, while realtime data about suicide are not available in many
regions, emerging data in several countries do not
yet provide any evidence that overall deaths as
a result of suicide have increased since COVID19 first appeared.Estimates by the Centers for
Disease Control and Prevention from last summer
do suggest an increase in suicidal ideation among
young adults, signifying the potential for increased
distress in this age group and underscoring the
importance of connecting individuals to care.

Suicidal ideation, however, is not a strong predictor
of suicidal behavior or death due to suicide, and
multiple evidence-based treatments are available
for individuals with risk for suicide.
Although there are reports that suggest increased
proportions of emergency-department visits
for mental-health treatment or suicide-related
behaviors in youth during the pandemic, this
increase appears to be the result of a lower
frequency of emergency-department visits overall.
In fact, the actual numbers of visits for mentalhealth crises appear comparable to prior years. Until
more data become available, it remains unclear if
there have been changes in severity and intensity
of mental-health crises. However, because seeking
help is associated with suicide prevention, the rise
in emergency-department visits could also reflect
an ongoing commitment by caregivers toward
treating serious mental-health concerns.
Schools play an important role in identifying risk
for suicide, linking young people to care, providing
comprehensive suicide-prevention programs,
and facilitating social connections among youth.
Schools also harbor known risk factors for suicide,
including negative social interactions, bullying, and
academic stressors. Thus, whether remote learning
increases or decreases, suicide risk likely varies
from child to child.
As a school psychology researcher and professor,
I study how schools can play a key role in suicide
prevention. With the shift to remote learning, I have
focused on understanding how schools can best
continue to enhance suicide prevention in youth.
I have also been closely following how the media
has covered suicide prevention in the context of
remote learning. Many reports convey messages
that reflect negative outcomes as though they are
final and unchangeable. Critically, there have been
multiple, unfounded claims that rates of suicide
are increasing or linked to remote learning. This is
deeply concerning as it paints a false picture of a
situation that remains uncertain.
Over the past few months, my colleagues and
I have been surveying and speaking with school
support professionals who are employing creative
strategies to support suicide-prevention efforts and
continue to connect with kids. I am hopeful about
the potential for these remarkable professionals to
have a positive effect on our youth. Some of these
strategies, which are based on findings from my
own research funded by several federal and private
sponsors and other existing research, include:

l Prioritizing connections with and between

students. Allot nonacademic time for students, for
example, asking students to answer fun discussion
questions in smaller breakout rooms.

l Integrating social and emotional learning into

student and professional-development curricula.

l Using multiple methods for reaching out to

students. Consider emailing, calling, texting, video
conferencing, and conducting home visits.

l Offering counseling services, with a protocol for

ensuring parents are available for sessions.

l Providing information and resources to students

and families, including suicide-prevention
hotlines, crisis text lines, and community-based
resources.

l Learning about the warning signs and risk factors

for suicide and how to connect students to care.

l Establishing clear protocols for in-school

and community-based referrals, virtual risk
assessments, adapted safety planning, and
emergency services such as mobile crisis.

l Checking in with students, families, and

colleagues regularly to identify ways to improve
these approaches over time.

l Practicing self-care and staying connected with

your colleagues.

The shift to distance learning will have
consequences, but we must continue to distinguish
among reports of what can happen, what is happening,
and what should happen. We need to tackle ongoing
concerns of inequity and psychological distress, while
being careful not to assume the worst. If we remain
open to the possibility of multiple effects from remote
learning, we won't miss opportunities to reinforce and
celebrate the successes of our children, even in the
midst of a pandemic. n

By Marisa E. Marraccini
MARRACCINI is an assistant professor of school
psychology in the School of Education at the
University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. Her
research aims to promote child and adolescent
mental health in the context of school settings.

Warning Signs Associated With Suicide
lT
alking about wanting to die

The more of these signs a person shows, the

lL
ooking for a way to kill oneself

greater the risk. Warning signs are associated

lT
alking about feeling hopeless

or having no purpose
lT
alking about feeling trapped

or in unbearable pain
lT
alking about being a burden to others
l I
ncreasing the use of alcohol or drugs
lA
cting anxious, agitated, or recklessly
lS
leeping too little or too much
lW
 ithdrawing or feeling isolated
lS
howing rage or talking about seeking revenge
lD
isplaying extreme mood swings

SOURCE: American Foundation of Suicide Prevention
Mary Haasdyk for Education Week

20 | EDUCATION WEEK | March 31, 2021 | www.edweek.org/opinion

with suicide but may not be what causes a
suicide.
If someone you know exhibits warning signs of
suicide:
lD
o not leave the person alone
lR
emove any firearms, alcohol, drugs, or sharp

objects that could be used in a suicide attempt
lC
all the U.S. National Suicide Prevention Lifeline

at 800-273-TALK (8255)
lT
ake the person to an emergency room or

seek help from a medical or mental-health
professional


http://www.edweek.org/opinion

Education Week - March 31, 2021

Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of Education Week - March 31, 2021

Education Week - March 31, 2021
Briefly Stated
Do Teachers Have to Disclose Their Vaccination Status? Experts Weigh In
What the Research Says
Suburban Public Schools Are Now Majority-Nonwhite
School Budgets: Why They’re Not As Bad As Predicted
Male Teachers Share Advice for Getting More Men Into the Profession
Feds’ First Survey of Pandemic Learning Finds Nearly Half of Students Taught Remotely
Miguel Cardona Talks Summer Learning, Mental Health, and State Tests
‘It Is OK to Grieve’
The Story of Pandemic Learning And Suicide Is Still Being Written
Don’t Assume a Return to School Is a Panacea
EdWeek Top School Jobs
We Are Part of Something Larger
Education Week - March 31, 2021 - Education Week - March 31, 2021
Education Week - March 31, 2021 - Briefly Stated
Education Week - March 31, 2021 - 3
Education Week - March 31, 2021 - Do Teachers Have to Disclose Their Vaccination Status? Experts Weigh In
Education Week - March 31, 2021 - What the Research Says
Education Week - March 31, 2021 - Suburban Public Schools Are Now Majority-Nonwhite
Education Week - March 31, 2021 - 7
Education Week - March 31, 2021 - 8
Education Week - March 31, 2021 - 9
Education Week - March 31, 2021 - School Budgets: Why They’re Not As Bad As Predicted
Education Week - March 31, 2021 - 11
Education Week - March 31, 2021 - Male Teachers Share Advice for Getting More Men Into the Profession
Education Week - March 31, 2021 - 13
Education Week - March 31, 2021 - Feds’ First Survey of Pandemic Learning Finds Nearly Half of Students Taught Remotely
Education Week - March 31, 2021 - 15
Education Week - March 31, 2021 - Miguel Cardona Talks Summer Learning, Mental Health, and State Tests
Education Week - March 31, 2021 - 17
Education Week - March 31, 2021 - ‘It Is OK to Grieve’
Education Week - March 31, 2021 - 19
Education Week - March 31, 2021 - The Story of Pandemic Learning And Suicide Is Still Being Written
Education Week - March 31, 2021 - Don’t Assume a Return to School Is a Panacea
Education Week - March 31, 2021 - 22
Education Week - March 31, 2021 - EdWeek Top School Jobs
Education Week - March 31, 2021 - We Are Part of Something Larger
Education Week - March 31, 2021 - SC1
Education Week - March 31, 2021 - SC2
Education Week - March 31, 2021 - S1
Education Week - March 31, 2021 - S2
Education Week - March 31, 2021 - S3
Education Week - March 31, 2021 - S4
Education Week - March 31, 2021 - S5
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