Education Week - March 27, 2013 - (Page 8)

EDUCATION WEEK n MARCH 27, 2013 n www.edweek.org More Teachers Group Students by Ability Study finds oft-disparaged approach rising By Sarah D. Sparks After being condemned as discriminatory in the 1990s, grouping students by academic ability seems to be back in vogue with a new generation of teachers, according to an analysis of federal teacher data. The study, “The Resurgence of Ability Grouping and Persistence of Tracking,” is part of an annual report on education released last week by the Brown Center on Education Policy at the Washingtonbased Brookings Institution. While different terms for sorting students are often used interchangeably, ability grouping generally refers to the practice— primarily in elementary grades—of separating students for instruction within a single class. By contrast, tracking is the practice, more often used in middle and high schools, of putting students who have different starting-point ability ranges into classes with correspondingly distinct difficulty levels within the same subject area—for example, Algebra 1 versus pre-algebra in middle school. A 4th grader who took the National Assessment of Educational Progress in 1998 had less than an even chance of being grouped by reading ability, but the odds were 9-to-1 in favor of such grouping by 2009, according to the Brookings Institution analysis of teachers’ reports collected in conjunction with the assessment. Teachers were also asked—twice before 1998 and again in 2011—if they created math groups primarily based on ability, as opposed to interest or other factors. The percentage who answered affirmatively fell from 48 percent to 40 percent from 1992 to 1996, increased to 42 percent in 2003, and then rose sharply to 61 percent in 2011. “I was shocked,” said Tom Loveless, a senior fellow at Brookings and the author of the study. “After suffering through a decade in the 1990s in which both ability grouping and tracking were thought to be taboo, ability grouping is coming back so strong.” In part, the new trend may be a generational issue: A majority of teachers in 2011 had not been in the field in the 1990s, when the debate over tracking and ability grouping was at its height. Several high-profile studies on ability grouping and tracking, including the educational equity scholar Jeannie Oakes’ 1985 book Keeping Track: How Schools Structure In- BACK IN VOGUE The percentage of teachers who say they group students by ability for mathematics instruction has grown substantially since the early 1990s, including a rapid upswing since 2007, according to a new analysis from the Brookings Institution. 1992 1996 48% 40 2006 2007 41 46 42 2009 54 2011 61% SOURCE: National Center for Education Statistics equality, found that ability grouping often ends up being a proxy for sorting by socioeconomic class. The practice came under widescale criticism as being discriminatory against minority students and those from poor families, who were disproportionately put into lowerlevel groups and classes. Researchers found that, as in “separate but equal” segregated schooling arrangements, students in lower academic groups and tracks were given less high-quality instruction and were not spurred to catch up with classmates in higher-level groups. Some research also concluded teachers were able to devote less instructional time to individual change begins with great ideas. I was excited about this program because I knew it would help me become a better teacher. Helping these kids overcome their personal obstacles is my biggest goal. With the right tools and the right leadership any school can succeed. Ellen Zambetti, M.Ed. teaching and learning in urban schools peabody.vanderbilt.edu 2003 49 Great Explore Our Difference 2000 subgroups in classes with static ability groups. In a resolution first set out in 1998 and reaffirmed in 2005, the National Education Association, the nation’s largest teachers’ union, officially calls for eliminating “the use of discriminatory academic tracking based on economic status, ethnicity, race, or gender ... in all public school settings.” In 1998, the year of the nea resolution, 39 percent of reading teachers whose students participated in naep reported that they did not group students for instruction at all, and only 28 percent said they grouped students by ability. But by 2009, according to the Brookings study, more than 70 percent of teachers reported ability grouping in reading, and only 8 percent relied on whole-class instruction as their primary method. Because prior research has shown that ability grouping is most often used in early grades and tapers off through elementary school, Mr. Loveless said the naep 4th grade teacher surveys likely underestimate the prevalence of ability grouping in elementary schools overall. Possible Benefits? Meanwhile, some emerging research suggests that, in some cases, flexible ability grouping can in fact benefit students. In a separate study released in February of students in Dallas public schools, economists Courtney A. Collins of Rhodes College, in Macon, Ga., and Li Gan of Texas a&m University, in College Station, found that sorting students into different courses by previous academic-test performance was associated with higher academic achievement not just for the highperforming students, but for struggling students as well. The researchers found that nearly 75 percent of the 135 schools studied sorted students, either within class or among classes, but they were more likely to use a specific learning-needs designation rather than ability in a single subject. For example, 57 percent of the schools sorted on the basis of a student’s English-language proficiency, and 28 percent made placements based on whether a student was identified as gifted. By contrast, fewer than one in four schools grouped students on the basis of their prior reading-test performance, and fewer than one in five sorted according to math performance. Nearly 40 percent of the schools used at least two different ability-level indicators to sort students. The researchers found that students in both high- and low-level groups performed better when grouped with peers who had performed similarly on the previous year’s math and reading tests. “These results,” conclude Ms. Collins and Mr. Gan, “give credence to the line of reasoning that suggests that more homogeneous classes allow teachers to teach to a more narrow range of students, which is beneficial for both high- and lowscoring individuals” in reading and math. The findings may point to why teachers continue to group students by ability even at the risk of reinforcing disparities among them. “Teachers still think they are faced with a really wide variety of students, and they think they need this tool in order to reduce the achievement [differences] they face,” Mr. Loveless said. “Ability grouping and tracking just never go away.” However, Ms. Collins and Mr. Gan’s study also found that students in special education who were grouped separately from other students had lower achievement in both math and reading, though only reading performance was significantly impaired. The National Center for Education Statistics plans to analyze teachers’ approaches to ability grouping and tracking in more depth next year, based on its 201112 Schools and Staffing Survey, which is due out later this spring. at Scan this tag with your smartphone for a link to “The Brown Center Report on American Education,” www.edweek.org/links. > > The INSIDE SCHOOL RESEARCH blog tracks news and trends on this issue. www.edweek.org/go/insideschoolresearch iStockphoto/DanTero 8 http://www.edweek.org http://peabody.vanderbilt.edu http://www.edweek.org/links http://peabody.vanderbilt.edu http://www.edweek.org/go/insideschoolresearch

Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of Education Week - March 27, 2013

Education Week - March 27, 2013
N.Y.C. System School-Match Gaps Tracked
INDUSTRY & INNOVATION: Educators Questioning Timing of
Resident Teachers Are Getting More ‘Practice’
DIGITAL DIRECTIONS: Race to Top Districts ‘Personalize’ Plans
Contents
News in Brief
Report Roundup
Study Finds Gaps in ‘College Ready’ Math Offerings
Early-Algebra Push Found to Yield No NAEP Boost
Math Teachers Break Down Standards For At-Risk Students
More Teachers Group Students by Ability
San Diego Superintendent Pick Has Deep Parental Ties
Partnership Combines Science Instruction and English Learning
States’ Score Cards Pinpoint Problems Of School Climate
Experts: Later School Start Helps Sleep-Deprived Teens
Blogs of the Week
Project Aims to Expand Web Access
New NAEP Demands Application of Knowledge
Elementary Students Tackling Windmills
Policy Brief
'Parent Trigger’ Laws Catching Fresh Wave
School Angles Seen in Same-Sex-Marriage Cases
‘Sequester’ Cuts Still in Place Amid Budget Wrangling
Political Storm Rages as Acting N.M. Chief Presses on With Job
Congress Eyes Pre-K
REGIS ANNE SHIELDS & KAREN HAWLEY MILES: Want Effective Teachers? Think About Your Value Proposition
ALISON CROWLEY: Getting Rid of the GPS: Teaching the Common Standards in Math
STEPHEN R. HERR: Celebrating Without Accomplishing
Letters
TopSchoolJobs Recruitment
Marketplace
AMANDA GARDNER: The Many Keys To Radical Classroom Change

Education Week - March 27, 2013

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http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_09262012
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_09192012
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http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_test
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http://www.nxtbookMEDIA.com