Education Week - March 27, 2013 - (Page 6)

6 EDUCATION WEEK n MARCH 27, 2013 n www.edweek.org Study Finds Gaps in ‘College Ready’ Math Offerings The drive to get every student to take so-called college gateway courses has succeeded, a new federal study finds, but students taking Algebra 1 and Geometry classes are getting considerably less substance than their course titles would suggest. Nearly all of the class of 2005 graduated having taken Algebra 1, according to the latest iteration of the National Assessment of Educational Progress’ high school transcript study, released this month by the National Center for Education Statistics. Yet if their course materials are any indication, fewer than one in four of those students studied the kind of challenging topics needed to prepare for college-level mathematics. During the 2005 naep, researchers also collected course-transcript data from a representative sample of 17,800 students who graduated with a regular or honors diploma that year. They also analyzed 120 Algebra 1, Geometry, and integrated math textbooks used at the 550 public schools those students attended. Education watchers hoping to close persistent achievement gaps among students of different racial and ethnic groups long have pushed for all students to take “college ready” class schedules, including at least four years of high school math, such as Algebra 1 and 2, Geometry, and Calculus. Here, at least, the transcript study shows this push has paid off: Graduates in 2005 earned on average 3.8 credits in math, significantly more than the average of 3.2 credits earned by graduates in 1990. Moreover, from 1990 to 2005, black graduates closed a 6-percentage-point gap with white graduates in the percentages of students earning at least three math credits, including in algebra and geometry. Variations in Rigor Of graduates who took a course identified by a school as Algebra 1, 32 percent had a rigorous course and 14 percent learned beginnerlevel material. In classes identified as Geometry, 21 percent of graduates took a class covering rigorous material, while 12 percent covered beginner-level material. For example, a student taking a rigorous Algebra 1 course covered 11 topics in advanced number theory, compared with only six for students in courses with the same name that researchers classified as beginner- and intermediatelevel classes. A student in an Algebra 1 class ranked by the study as beginner-level had no exposure to advanced functions, and more than a quarter of the class was devoted to basic arithmetic and prealgebra. A student in a rigorous BEGINNER INTERMEDIATE 17%* 13%* RIGOROUS 10% Many states are pushing students to take Algebra 1 in middle school to prepare them for advanced math in high school. A new analysis, however, suggests that increased enrollment hasn’t led to higher math performance for states on the National Assessment of Educational Progress. The study was released last week as part of the annual report on education by the Brown Center on Education Policy at the Brookings Institution, in Washington. Brookings senior fellow Tom Loveless tracked the number of students taking the 8th grade naep between 1990 and 2011 who reported taking an advanced math class, which could mean Algebra 1, Algebra 2, Geometry, or an algebra course “stretched over two years.” In 1990, only 16 percent of 8th graders enrolled in an algebra course, versus 81 percent in a more basic pre-algebra course. By 2011, fully 47 percent of 8th grade students reported taking Algebra 1 or higher math. Between 2005 and 2011, 45 states boosted the number of 8th graders taking Algebra 1, with an average increase of 5.5 percent more of those students taking a math course at the level of Algebra 1 or higher. Mr. Loveless found no connection, though, between increases in the number of 8th graders Elementary and middle school math Introductory algebra 35 Advanced algebra 40* 46* 26* 21* 4* 6* 6* Geometry class likewise covered significantly more topics in coordinate and vector geometry, and significantly fewer topics in basic arithmetic and pre-geometry, than a student in a beginner-level Geometry class. The proof of the pudding is in the eating: Mr. Buckley said students who took classes that covered more rigorous topics in algebra and geometry scored significantly higher on naep than those who studied beginner topics, regardless of the course’s title. In fact, more graduates who took Algebra 1 courses considered “regular” or “two-year 2* 8* 10* 4 7 16 enrolled in Algebra 1 and states’ average naep math scores, even after controlling for changes in the states’ rates of children in poverty, English-language learners, and black and Hispanic students. A recent analysis of high school coursework by the National Center for Education Statistics found that a majority of high school courses labeled Algebra 1 and Geometry cover a significant amount of more basic material. (See related story, this page.) Critics noted that the nces study did not include data on 8th grade Algebra 1 and Geometry courses, even though one in five 2005 high school graduates had taken Algebra 1 in middle school. Two-dimensional geometry Advanced geometry Other high school math WHAT’S COVERED IN ALGEBRA 1? While nearly all 2005 high school graduates had taken a course called Algebra 1 at some point, the content of those classes varied tremendously, according to a new analysis by the National Center for Education Statistics. The chart breaks down the types of topics actually covered in Algebra 1 courses that researchers classified as beginner-, intermediate-, and rigorous-level classes. * SIGNIFICANTLY DIFFERENT FROM RIGOROUS. NOTE: Figures may not add up to total because of rounding. SOURCE: National Center for Education Statistics, High School Transcript Study Early-Algebra Push Found to Yield No NAEP Boost By Sarah D. Sparks Topics 27 PERCENT Washington Course Difficulty The study found that, on average, two-thirds of topics covered in Algebra 1 and Geometry courses focused on core content in each of those subjects, while the other third covered topics in other math areas. Researchers also gauged the rigor of classes based on the topics and questions covered in each book. A course categorized by researchers as beginner-level algebra had more than 60 percent of its material on elementary and middle school math topics such as basic arithmetic and pre-algebra problems such as basic equations. By contrast, a rigorous Algebra 1 course included more than 60 percent of material on advanced topics such as functions and advanced number theory, as well as other higher-level math subjects, such as geometry, trigonometry, and precalculus. “We found that there is very little truth-in-labeling for high school Algebra 1 and Geometry courses,” said Sean P. “Jack” Buckley, the nces commissioner, in a statement on the study. { By Sarah D. Sparks But the Brookings study suggests the high school pattern may hold in middle school math courses, too. In states that did not increase their enrollments, students in 8th grade Algebra 1 courses performed, on average, 9.2 points better in 2011 than in 2005. In states with rising enrollments, by contrast, students in 8th grade Algebra 1 improved only 5.2 scale points during the same period. “I think the Brookings study using state aggregated data confirms a lot of what nces finds in our more detailed transcript analysis,” said nces Commissioner Sean P. “Jack” Buckley. Mr. Loveless said the study suggests that advanced math in middle school may be “watered down” as more students of different ability levels in math take the course. “Algebra in 8th grade used to be reserved for gifted students; if you were a high flier in math, you were moved up,” he said. As taking Algebra 1 in 8th grade becomes the “new normal,” he said, gifted math students are being pushed to take the subject in 7th grade, and take a geometry course in 8th. “It doesn’t matter what we do as the norm, there will be another class created for gifted [students],” Mr. Loveless said. Scan this tag with your smartphone for a link to “The Brown Center Report on American Education.” www.edweek.org/links http://www.edweek.org http://www.edweek.org/links

Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of Education Week - March 27, 2013

Education Week - March 27, 2013
N.Y.C. System School-Match Gaps Tracked
INDUSTRY & INNOVATION: Educators Questioning Timing of
Resident Teachers Are Getting More ‘Practice’
DIGITAL DIRECTIONS: Race to Top Districts ‘Personalize’ Plans
Contents
News in Brief
Report Roundup
Study Finds Gaps in ‘College Ready’ Math Offerings
Early-Algebra Push Found to Yield No NAEP Boost
Math Teachers Break Down Standards For At-Risk Students
More Teachers Group Students by Ability
San Diego Superintendent Pick Has Deep Parental Ties
Partnership Combines Science Instruction and English Learning
States’ Score Cards Pinpoint Problems Of School Climate
Experts: Later School Start Helps Sleep-Deprived Teens
Blogs of the Week
Project Aims to Expand Web Access
New NAEP Demands Application of Knowledge
Elementary Students Tackling Windmills
Policy Brief
'Parent Trigger’ Laws Catching Fresh Wave
School Angles Seen in Same-Sex-Marriage Cases
‘Sequester’ Cuts Still in Place Amid Budget Wrangling
Political Storm Rages as Acting N.M. Chief Presses on With Job
Congress Eyes Pre-K
REGIS ANNE SHIELDS & KAREN HAWLEY MILES: Want Effective Teachers? Think About Your Value Proposition
ALISON CROWLEY: Getting Rid of the GPS: Teaching the Common Standards in Math
STEPHEN R. HERR: Celebrating Without Accomplishing
Letters
TopSchoolJobs Recruitment
Marketplace
AMANDA GARDNER: The Many Keys To Radical Classroom Change

Education Week - March 27, 2013

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