Education Week - March 6, 2013 - 7

EDUCATION WEEK

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MARCH 6, 2013

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www.edweek.org

7

FOCUS ON: PRESCHOOL

Would teachers need
higher education?
By Stephen Sawchuk
Amid the attention stemming
from President Barack Obama’s
focus on early-childhood education in his State of the Union address, some advocates are wondering what the proposal will
mean in the way of expectations
for teachers.
In particular, they are zeroing in
on the president’s call for “qualified” teachers—a term that carries
baggage in a field where debates
loom large about how to simultaneously improve the quality of
instruction, increase the number
of children served, and raise the
prestige and pay of pre-K’s approximately 1.8 million teachers.
While some advocates see the
remark as an acknowledgment
of the specialized training earlychildhood educators need, others
worry that it could signal a focus
on pure credentials. That credentials-based approach, they say, is
unlikely to improve outcomes for
pupils unless it’s coupled with attention on improving how teachers interact with young children.
“What I am afraid is going to
happen is that the phrase ‘qualified early-childhood teacher’ will
become a metaphor for a degreecertified teacher,” said Susan J.
Kimmel, the director of the Center
for Early-Childhood Professional
Development at the University of
Oklahoma. “While I think an earlychildhood degree should provide a
solid foundation, there are many
other aspects that we really need
to have a conversation about.”
The prospects for a new and
probably costly federal investment in early education remain
mixed at best. Yet the issue has
relevance beyond just that level:
Multiple governors, Democratic
and Republican alike, have proposed expanding access to earlychildhood education in their budget plans this year, even as money
remains generally tight.

Quality Control?
President Obama made earlychildhood education the centerpiece of his education remarks in
his Feb. 12 address, proposing a
new federal grant competition to
provide financial incentives for
states to expand their preschool
offerings to middle- and low-income children.
The White House has since revealed few details of the president’s proposal. A short summary
noted that preschool teachers in
the participating states would, in
addition to being qualified, be “well
trained” and “paid comparably to
K-12 staff.”
For many, that is a signal that
any new program would provide
incentives to improve the educa-

tional levels of child-care workers.
The field encompasses aides who
have not finished high school to
educators holding bachelor’s degrees and beyond.
“I think you can assume if you’re
talking educated and comparable
to K-3, you’re talking about education at the level of expectation
that we have for K-3—some kind
of college degree and certification
process indicating people have
competency in early education,”
said Marcy Whitebook, the director of the Center for the Study of
Child Care Employment at the
Institute for Labor Research and
Education at the University of
California, Berkeley.
Pre-K advocacy organizations
have generally supported increasing the number of preschool edu-

“

There’s no
other level of
teaching where
we’d say, ‘Does
a teacher need
to have a college
degree?’ People
don’t tend to
think of the
work as skilled.”

MARCY WHITEBOOK
Center for the Study of Child
Care Employment
University of California, Berkeley

cators who hold four-year degrees
with some content specialty in
early-childhood education. And
that push has influenced federal
policy on early-childhood education already, including in Head
Start.
By the end of September, the
U.S. Department of Health and
Human Services expects half of
Head Start teachers nationwide to
hold a bachelor’s degree or higher
in the field.
The empirical research is mixed
on whether teachers with bachelor’s degrees contribute more to
preschool children’s social, emotional, and academic well-being.
But some researchers say that it is
the best way to ensure a base level
of training for those in the field, as
well as ensure that they can earn
a living wage.
“There’s no other level of teaching where we’d say, ‘Does a teacher
need to have a college degree?’ ” Ms.
Whitebook said. “People don’t tend
to think of the work as skilled, and
it does sort of live under a babysitting shadow.”
If the Obama administration
requires higher credentials under
the new initiative, it could open
avenues for criticism on political

grounds. Both the National Education Association and the American Federation of Teachers heavily favor Democrats and have been
strong supporters of early-childhood education. They also, some
commentators say, stand to gain
more members from an expansion
of pre-K services.
The nea, which does not permit
private K-12 teachers to become
members, moved in 2008 to allow
private pre-K teachers to join the
union.
“Requiring states to credential
and pay pre-K teachers as they
credential and pay K-12 teachers
assures only two things: high costs
and supportive teacher unions,”
Grover J. “Russ” Whitehurst, the
director of the Brown Center on Education Policy at the Washingtonbased Brookings Institution, said in
a commentary on the proposal.

Astrid Riecken/Washington Post

Obama Preschool Proposal Stirs Debate Over Training

Interactions Key

Queshonda Moore teaches
Aria Nickens, 4, how to
write letters during a lesson
at the Apple Tree Early
Learning Public Charter
School in the District
of Columbia.

For experts such as Ms. Kimmel, the question is not only
whether a new federal early-education initiative would encourage
higher levels of education, but
also whether teachers already in
the classroom would be helped to
deepen and strengthen their instruction. And she believes such
a program should also emphasize
ways to help teachers determine
whether their teaching produces
better cognitive and emotional
outcomes for children.
“What does [a preschool] class
look like, what’s going on, and
what is the teacher doing?” Ms.
Kimmel said.
Research indicates that children’s cognitive and social development are linked to the quality of interaction with preschool
teachers, regardless of their educational levels. Such findings have
spawned interest in frameworks

that describe effective practices in
such interactions, and can serve
as the basis of professional development and coaching.
Those frameworks are gaining
attention in the field, but while
many states have moved to institute rating systems to give a sense
of programs’ strengths, not all of
them specifically look at interactions in classrooms.
“If they’re going to drive what we
want them to drive, you’ve got to
make sure what’s in them is going
to matter for student learning,”
said Robert C. Pianta, the dean of
the University of Virginia’s school
of education, in Charlottesville,
and the creator of the Classroom
Assessment Scoring System, a
popular early-childhood teaching
framework.
He hopes that if a federal program comes to pass, it will spur

policy experiments in credentialing—possibly by creating new competency measures for newly certified teachers to demonstrate that
they can engage in high-quality
interactions with young children.
W. Steven Barnett, the director
of the National Institute for Early
Education Research, at Rutgers
University in New Brunswick,
N.J., already sees signs that the administration will strike a balance
between credentials and practice.
During a speech at an earlychildhood center in Decatur, Ga.,
two days after his address to the
nation, Mr. Obama said earlychildhood teachers should have a
“coach who’s coming in and working with them on best practices,”
Mr. Barnett noted.
“In some ways, that’s pretty
detailed for a president to say
teachers need coaching,” he said.
“I think they have thought it
through, that it is not just about
credentials. It’s about having this
continuous improvement process
that ensures quality teaching is
going to happen.”
Library Intern Holly Peele contributed
research assistance.

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Education Week - March 6, 2013

Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of Education Week - March 6, 2013

Education Week - March 6, 2013
Los Angeles School Board Race Shatters Spending Records
Feds, States Dicker Over Evaluations
Governors Take Varied Routes in Boosting Aid
Principal Appraisals Get a Remake
Contents
News in Brief
Report Roundup
Study: Best and Worst Teachers Can Be Flagged Early
FOCUS ON: PRESCHOOL: Obama Preschool Proposal Stirs Debate Over Training
Principals Lack Training in Shaping School Climate
KIPP Outpacing Regular Public Schools, Study Finds
INDUSTRY & INNOVATION: Wisconsin Data-Contract Fight Goes Public With Ad Campaign
DIGITAL DIRECTIONS: Pew Survey Gauges Teachers’ Attitudes About Tech., Equity
Blogs of the Week
Voting Rights Act Case Has Stakes for Districts
Back Home, Top Lawmaker Gets Earful on K-12 Policy
Policy Brief
Sequestration and Education: Frequently Asked Questions
9 California Districts Seek Own NCLB Waiver
House Panel Weighs School Safety Concerns
MATTHEW LYNCH: Tracing Technology’s Unintended K-12 Consequences
ANGELA MINNICI & ELLEN BEHRSTOCK-SHERRATT: Using Teacher Evaluation to Grow
ANITA KRISHNAMURTHI: Recognizing the Impact of After-School STEM
Letters
TopSchoolJobs Recruitment Marketplace
JD CHESLOFF: Why STEM Education Must Start In Early Childhood
Education Week - March 6, 2013 - Education Week - March 6, 2013
Education Week - March 6, 2013 - Cover2
Education Week - March 6, 2013 - Principal Appraisals Get a Remake
Education Week - March 6, 2013 - 2
Education Week - March 6, 2013 - Contents
Education Week - March 6, 2013 - News in Brief
Education Week - March 6, 2013 - Report Roundup
Education Week - March 6, 2013 - Study: Best and Worst Teachers Can Be Flagged Early
Education Week - March 6, 2013 - FOCUS ON: PRESCHOOL: Obama Preschool Proposal Stirs Debate Over Training
Education Week - March 6, 2013 - Principals Lack Training in Shaping School Climate
Education Week - March 6, 2013 - KIPP Outpacing Regular Public Schools, Study Finds
Education Week - March 6, 2013 - INDUSTRY & INNOVATION: Wisconsin Data-Contract Fight Goes Public With Ad Campaign
Education Week - March 6, 2013 - 11
Education Week - March 6, 2013 - 12
Education Week - March 6, 2013 - 13
Education Week - March 6, 2013 - DIGITAL DIRECTIONS: Pew Survey Gauges Teachers’ Attitudes About Tech., Equity
Education Week - March 6, 2013 - Blogs of the Week
Education Week - March 6, 2013 - 16
Education Week - March 6, 2013 - 17
Education Week - March 6, 2013 - 18
Education Week - March 6, 2013 - 19
Education Week - March 6, 2013 - Back Home, Top Lawmaker Gets Earful on K-12 Policy
Education Week - March 6, 2013 - Sequestration and Education: Frequently Asked Questions
Education Week - March 6, 2013 - House Panel Weighs School Safety Concerns
Education Week - March 6, 2013 - 23
Education Week - March 6, 2013 - 24
Education Week - March 6, 2013 - ANGELA MINNICI & ELLEN BEHRSTOCK-SHERRATT: Using Teacher Evaluation to Grow
Education Week - March 6, 2013 - ANITA KRISHNAMURTHI: Recognizing the Impact of After-School STEM
Education Week - March 6, 2013 - Letters
Education Week - March 6, 2013 - 28
Education Week - March 6, 2013 - TopSchoolJobs Recruitment Marketplace
Education Week - March 6, 2013 - 30
Education Week - March 6, 2013 - 31
Education Week - March 6, 2013 - JD CHESLOFF: Why STEM Education Must Start In Early Childhood
Education Week - March 6, 2013 - Cover3
Education Week - March 6, 2013 - Cover4
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