Education Week - March 4, 2015 - (Page 23)

provide promised funds, changed enrollment criteria and admissions processes to the school's disadvantage, or required new testing or data reports. Like any system of rights, these would need to be exercised and defended. If one school accepted a new burden, rather than challenge its authorizer, all would be threatened. The same would be true of a school board or charter authorizer that favored one school by going easy on it or giving it extra money. Unlike under chartering, schools would have incentives to defend the level playing field for all, rather than make their own deals with government. In the past 20 years, reformers have learned a lot thanks to chartering, and have shown that empowering school leaders and teachers to make decisions can benefit students via better school climates and increased time for learning. But we have also seen the limitations of what is, at best, a blunt instrument. It's time to go beyond chartering and bring clarity to public education governance. n PAUL T. HILL is the founder of the Center on Reinventing Public Education, or CRPE, at the University of Washington Bothell. ASHLEY E. JOCHIM is a research analyst at CRPE. They are the co-authors of A Democratic Constitution for Public Education, published late last year by the University of Chicago Press. The Fault in Our School Boards By John Mannes I iStockphoto help schools should focus more on building capacity in procurement, adoption, and use of new technologies. And as the market becomes more sophisticated, providers of learning-science-based products will win. They would be wise to get ahead of this curve. Entrepreneurs should start with reflection: What do we know about working memory and cognitive load? What does the literature say about when to guide a learner and when a learner should have autonomy? How much have we thought about contextualization? Metacognition? What are the likely "decay" rates of the knowledge our product helps people learn, and how does our strategy to reduce this loss draw on research? Do we provide learners with feedback? And is its timing, nature, and specificity based on research? And do we test and refine the design to maximize effectiveness? There are signs that the field is moving in this more careful, questioning direction. Last year, leaders of several universities, as well as Google, Microsoft, edX, Coursera, and other companies, formed the Global Learning Council to work on unlocking the power of learning science and technology to improve student outcomes. There is a growing sense that education technology hasn't delivered on its promises, and the most obvious way to turn cool experiences into quality experiences is to use learning science to improve design. There are many resources out there, but one accessible way for educational innovators to get started is to read books such as Breakthrough Leadership in the Digital Age: Using Learning Science to Reboot Schooling, by Frederick M. Hess and Bror Saxberg. Second, design offerings to help learners acquire the personal skills so critical to shaping success in learning, work, and life. These are variously called soft skills, noncognitive factors, dispositions, attributes, behaviors, employability skills, and so on. But, following the National Research Council, I prefer the specificity of "interpersonal" and "intrapersonal" skills. The importance of these skills is reflected in the current buzz about grit, perseverance, and academic mind-sets, a field of thought associated with Angela Duckworth, Paul Tough, Carol Dweck, and others. But it isn't just buzz. The field has focused in on a set of skills that determine success in many contexts. The interpersonal skills include communication, collaboration, and relationship management. The intrapersonal skills-which arguably shape everything else-include conscientiousness, self-regulation, self-efficacy and growth mind-set, metacognition, and perseverance. This isn't to diminish the importance and difficulty of helping students acquire essential cognitive skills and content knowledge. But research indicates that these ultimately are not enough to ensure college and career success, if the individual lacks the ability and disposition to activate and make use of them in different contexts. Two good sources of information on all of PAGE 27 > MATTHEW MUENCH is a program officer at the Joyce Foundation, in Chicago, where he focuses on new approaches to helping children and adults acquire the skills and credentials needed for success in learning. His twitter account is @mmuench. The Joyce Foundation helps support Education Week's coverage of the teaching profession. n February, members of the Montgomery County, Md., board of education-representing the 17th-largest school district in the United States, one located in the backyard of the nation's capital-approved a departure agreement for the system's prominent, one-term superintendent, Joshua P. Starr. Starr had been a highly sought administrator. He was a candidate, in late 2013, for the chancellorship of the New York City public schools. While in Montgomery County, he increased the prevalence of technology and the use of project-based learning, and worked to identify key indicators for potentially atrisk students. Moreover, he had championed new programs to build pathways between high schools and local colleges. Yet despite his successes, and his stated desire to remain in what he calls one of the "best jobs in public education," Starr agreed to part ways with the school system after extended, closeddoor negotiations. So how does this happen? And more importantly, what does it say about the state of school board governance in the United States? American taxpayers entrust more than $550 billion in spending to public education every year. And while national education reform dominates media coverage, local school boards wield significant influence over student performance. Board members are tasked with solving such large-scale problems as achievement gaps, budget shortfalls, and aging facilities. However, the discrepancy between effective and ineffective school system governance is clear among the more than 14,000 public school districts nationwide. Ineffective governance is often the byproduct of what has been called "school board dysfunction," the situation in which board members lacking in organization, leadership, and an understanding of their role diminish a board's capacity for good decisionmaking and strong educational leadership. The inherent difference between managing a campaign for the school board and actually leading a school system is one of the key drivers of this dysfunction. Board members spend considerable time campaigning for their posts. In a large district, this can mean fundraising for thousands of dollars, speaking to tens of thousands of constituents, completing dozens of interviews, and networking with countless other politicians. Campaigning, at its heart, is an entrepreneurial experience. The difference is, instead of pitching a product, candidates are selling their ideas, and often more importantly, marketing themselves. A politician seeking office must inspire his or her staff to work insane hours for a shockingly low amount of money on a project with a high potential for failure. The problem lies when a board member moves from tinkering in the garage to elected office. While candidates are kings and queens of their own campaigns, they do not hold that level of power in a legislative board position. There is room for a board member to work on policy, establish direction, and ensure continuous improvement, but in reality, he or she is merely one of many in the decisionmaking process. While a board member independently calls the shots in the campaign, the job itself demands collaboration, a willing exchange of ideas, and acceptance of the school system's framework for advocating change. When these practices of good governance are not upheld early on, relationships within the board and with administrators become strained. This is the inception of dysfunction. This is the moment in which things go awry. This is why the Franklin Township public schools in New Jersey hired four superintendents in the span of one year. This is why bickering and backstabbing and a power struggle between board " Our national conversation on education should include more discussion of effective school system leadership, and not just of increasing test scores and global competitiveness." members have reportedly consumed the Seattle school board. This is why a board member is said to have used personal attacks as leverage to attempt to change a vote on the Richmond, Va., school board. Most of all, this is why a successful superintendent with a national reputation for positive change and vision was made unwelcome to continue his work by board members in Montgomery County, Md., some with only a few weeks of experience. Students suffer when politics becomes a priority. School boards become the target of voters not because of poor platforms, insufficient creativity, or lack of effort, but because of naiveté and unprofessional conduct. Our national conversation on education should include more discussion of effective school system leadership, and not just of increasing test scores and global competitiveness. Voters should consider behavior in addition to statistics when choosing their local school boards. Sometimes the only way to fix a toxic relationship is to end it. A dysfunctional board can mean years of stalled progress on improving schools. Allowing the campaign mentality to tarnish relationships at a cost to students, teachers, and parents is never good governance. This is the fault in our school boards. n JOHN MANNES served on the school board in Montgomery County, Md., from 2012 to 2013, during Joshua P. Starr's tenure as superintendent. He runs a blog called MoCo Student, aimed at informing students about the education decisions being made around them. EDUCATION WEEK | March 4, 2015 | www.edweek.org/go/commentary | 23 http://www.edweek.org/go/commentary

Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of Education Week - March 4, 2015

Study: Twitter Fanned Debate On Standards
Police Body Cameras Surfacing in Schools
Tracing Hillary Clinton’s K-12 Record
Boys-Only Programs Raise Legal Concerns
DIGITAL DIRECTIONS: Simulation Game on Slave Experience Provokes Questions
Education Week - March 4, 2015
Contents
News in Brief
Report Roundup
Rewrite of Framework for AP U.S. History Raises More Hackles
Blogs of the Week
Chicago’s Emanuel Forced Into Runoff
N.Y. Study Finds More Top Students Hired as Teachers
Deeper Look at Suspension Data Pinpoints Big Disparities
House Wrestles With Bill to Rewrite No Child Left Behind Act
Partisan Winds Loom For Some GOP Governors
Blogs of the Week
State of the States
PAUL T. HILL & ASHLEY JOCHIM: Beyond Chartering
MATTHEW MUENCH: Making ‘Innovation’ Live Up to Its Hype
JOHN MANNES: The Fault in Our School Boards
Letters
TopSchoolJobs Recruitment Marketplace
DAVID FINLEY: Teacher Tenure: An Innocent Victim of Vergara v. California

Education Week - March 4, 2015

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