Education Week - February 24, 2016 - (Page 8)

DIGITAL DIRECTIONS > Tracking news and ideas in educational technology www.digitaldirections.org Seven Studies Comparing Paper and Computer Test Scores By Benjamin Herold Do the computer-based exams that are increasingly prevalent in K-12 education measure skills and knowledge as accurately as traditional paper-based tests? With news that millions of students who took PARCC exams by computer tended to score worse than those who took the same exams with paper and pencil, it's a technical question that is again getting heavy scrutiny. Earlier this month, officials from the multistate Partnership for the Assessment of Readiness for College and Careers acknowledged to Education Week that there were discrepancies in scores across different formats of its exams. Illinois, Rhode Island, and the Baltimore County, Md., schools are among the states and districts that have found such a pattern, with the advantage for paper-based test-takers appearing to be most pronounced in English/language arts and upper-grades math. In Rhode Island, for example, officials found that 42.5 percent 1 "Online Assessment and the Comparability of Score Meaning" Educational Testing Service, 2003 2 "Maintaining Score Equivalence as Tests Transition Online: Issues, Approaches, and Trends" of the students who took the PARCC English/language arts exam on paper scored proficient, compared with 34 percent of those who took the test by computer. A spokesman for the state education department said the variability in scores there appears to be due in large measure to varying degrees of "student and system readiness for technology." Researchers and psychometricians have been wrestling with the dilemma of comparing paper- and computer-based test results for more than 20 years, said Derek Briggs, a professor of research and evaluation methodology at the University of Colorado at Boulder. He serves on the technical-advisory committees for both PARCC and the Smarter Balanced Assessment Consortium, the two main groups that have created tests aligned with the Common Core State Standards. Briggs said computer- and paper-based versions of an exam shouldn't necessarily be expected to measure the same abilities, or have comparable results. Part of the motivation for pouring hundreds of millions of federal dollars into the new consortia exams, 3 Journal of Technology, Learning, and Assessment, 2008 4 "The Nation's Report Card: Writing 2011" National Center for Education Statistics, 2014 Library Intern Connor Smith provided research assistance. To give a deeper look at the issues behind this "mode effect," Education Week examined seven key research studies on the topic: "It should be a matter of indifference to the examinee whether the test is administered on computer or paper, or whether it is taken on a large-screen display or a small one," wrote Randy Elliot Bennett more than a decade ago. Bennet was one of the leaders in the field of psychometrics and mode-comparability, and this overview explores a range of mode-comparability issues. "Although the promise of online assessment is substantial, states are encountering significant issues, including ones of measurement and fairness," the paper reads. "Particularly distressing is the potential for such variation [in testing conditions] to unfairly affect population groups, such as females, minority-group members, or students attending schools in poor neighborhoods." The authors of this paper, originally presented at the National Council of Measurement in Education, highlight the "mixed findings" from studies about the impact of test-administration mode on student reading and mathematic scores, saying they "promote ambiguity" and make life difficult for policymakers. The answer, they say, is quasi-experimental designs carried out by testing entities such as state departments of education. The preferred technique, the paper suggests, is a matched-samples comparability analysis, through which researchers are able to create comparable groups of test-takers in each mode of administration, then compare how they performed. Pearson, 2008 "Does It Matter If I Take My Mathematics Test on Computer? A Second Empirical Study of Mode Effects in NAEP" after all, was to use technology to create better tests that elicit, for instance, more evidence of students' critical-thinking skills and ability to model and solve problems. But the reality is that in some states and districts, the technology infrastructure doesn't exist to support administration of the computer-based exams. All children don't have the same access to technology at home and in school, nor do their teachers use technology in the classroom in the same ways, even when it is present. And some students are much more familiar than others with basic elements of a typical computer-based exam's digital interface-how to scroll through a window, use word-processing features such as copying and pasting, and how to drag and drop items on a screen, for example. A mounting body of evidence suggests that some students tend to do worse on computer-based versions of an exam, for reasons that have more to do with their familiarity with technology than with their academic knowledge and skills. "Results showed that the computer-based mathematics test was significantly harder statistically than the paper-based test," according to Randy Elliot Bennett, who is also the lead author of this paper, which looked at results from a 2001 National Center for Education Statistics investigation of new technology for administering the National Assessment of Educational Progress in math. "In addition, computer facility predicted online mathematics test performance after controlling for performance on a paper-based mathematics test, suggesting that degree of familiarity with computers may matter when taking a computer-based mathematics test in NAEP." As the NCES moved to administer its first computer-based NAEP writing assessment, it also tracked the impact in this study of how 24,100 8th graders and 28,1000 12th graders performed. Doug Levin, then the director of the State Educational Technology Directors Association, summed up the findings in a 2014 blog post: "Students who had greater access to technology in and out of school, and had teachers that required its use for school assignments, used technology in more powerful ways" and "scored significantly higher on the NAEP writing achievement test," Levin wrote. "Such clear and direct relationships are few and far between in education-and these findings raise many implications for states and districts as they shift to online assessment." 8 | EDUCATION WEEK | February 24, 2016 | www.edweek.org This working paper found that high-performing 4th graders who took NAEP's computer-based pilot writing exam in 2012 scored "substantively higher on the computer" than similar students who had taken the exam on paper in 2010. Low- and middle-performing students did not similarly benefit from taking the exam on computers, raising concerns that computer-based exams might widen achievement gaps. Likely key to the score differences, said Sheida White, one of the report's authors, in an interview, is the role of "facilitative" computer skills such as keyboarding ability and word-processing skills. "When a student [who has those skills] is generating an essay, their cognitive resources are focused on their word choices, their sentence structure, and how to make their sentences more interesting and varied-not trying to find letters on a keyboard, or the technical aspects of the computer," White said. This state-level study of mode effects on exams administered in spring and summer of 2011 used the matched-samples comparability-analysis technique described in the Pearson study. "Although the results indicated the presence of relatively small overall mode effects that favored the paper administration, these effects were observed for a minority of items common to the paper and online forms," the study found. This state-level mode-comparability study looked across math, reading, and science tests administered by both computer and paper. "Results suggest that average scores and standard errors are quite similar across [computer] and paper tests. Although the difference were still quite small (less than a half a scale score point), 3rd graders tended to show slightly larger differences," the paper reads. "This study provides evidence that scores are comparable across [Oregon's computer] and paper delivery modes." 5 "Performance of 4th-Grade Students in the 2012 NAEP Computer-Based Writing Pilot" NCES, 2015 6 "Mathematics Minnesota Comprehensive Assessment-Series III (MCA-III) Mode Comparability Study Report" Minnesota Department of Education and Pearson, 2012 7 "Comparability of Student Scores Obtained From Paper and Computer Administrations" Oregon Department of Education, 2007 http://www.digitaldirections.org http://www.edweek.org

Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of Education Week - February 24, 2016

Education Week - February 24, 2016
ESSA Spotlights Strategy to Reach Diverse Learners
Will the Common Core Step Up Schools’ Focus on Grammar?
Disparities in Test Accommodations Eyed
Contents
News in Brief
Report Roundup
S.D. May Restrict Restroom Use For Transgender Students
Conn. Seminars Tackle ‘Religious Illiteracy’ In Classrooms
Seven Studies Comparing Paper and Computer Test Scores
To Offset Poverty, Ed. Groups Urge ‘Whole-Child’ Approach
Research on Deafness Yields Broader Insights
Analysis: Ill. Pension Woes Destabilizing Teaching
Blogs of the Week
Military Eyes Wider Access for Career-Aptitude Test Under ESSA
Scalia’s Death Muddies Fate of Key Cases
Courts Push Lawmakers to the Wall Over K-12 Funding
Blogs of the Week
5 Key Takeaways on Education From White House Candidates
State of the States
Preschool Suspensions Do More Harm Than Good
Personalization Isn’t About Isolation
Letters
TopSchoolJobs Recruitment Marketplace
Why Preschool Matters for Student Success

Education Week - February 24, 2016

http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_06152022
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_06082022
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_06012022
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_05112022
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_05042022
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_04272022
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_04132022
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_04062022
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_03302022
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_03232022
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_03162022
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_03092022
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_03022022
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_02232022
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_02162022
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_02092022
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_02022022
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_01192022
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_01122022
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_01052022
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_12082021
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_12012021
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_11242021
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_11172021
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_11032021
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_10272021
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_10202021
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_10112021
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_10062021
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_09292021
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_09222021
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_09152021
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_09082021
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_09012021
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_08252021
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_08182021
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_07142021
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_06162021
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_06092021
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_06022021
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_04282021
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_05122021
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_05052021
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_04212021
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_04142021
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_03312021
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_03242021
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_03172021
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_03102021
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_03032021
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_02242021
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_02172021
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_02102021
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_02032021
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_01202021
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_01132021
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_01062021
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_12092020
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_12022020
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_11252020
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_11182020
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_11042020
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_10282020
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_10212020
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_10142020
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_10072020
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_09302020
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_09232020
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_09162020
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_09092020
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_09022020
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_08262020
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_08192020
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_07152020
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_06172020
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_06102020
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_06042020
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_06032020
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_05132020
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_05062020
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_04292020
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_04082020
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_04012020
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_03252020
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_03182020
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_03112020
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_03042020
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_02262020
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_02192020
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_02122020
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_02052020
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_01222020
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_01152020
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_01082020
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_12112019
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_12042019
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_11272019
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_11132019
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_11062019
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_10302019
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_10232019
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_10162019
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_10092019
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_10022019
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_09252019
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_09182019
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_09112019
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_09042019
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_08282019
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_08212019
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_07172019
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_06192019
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_06122019
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_06032019
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_05152019
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_05082019
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_05012019
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_04242019
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_04172019
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_04102019
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_04032019
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_03202019
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_03132019
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_03062019
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_02272019
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_02202019
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_02132019
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_02062019
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_01232019
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_01162019
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_01092019
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_12122018
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_12052018
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_11282018
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_11142018
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_11072018
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_10312018
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_10242018
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_10172018
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_10102018
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_10032018
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_09262018
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_09192018
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_09122018
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_09052018
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_08292018
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_08222018
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_07182018
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_06202018
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_06132018
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_06062018
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_05302018
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_05232018
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_05162018
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_05092018
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_05022018
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_04252018
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_04182018
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_04112018
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_04042018
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_03212018
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_03072018
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_sr_03072018
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_02282018
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_02212018
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_02142018
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_02072018
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_01242018
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_01172018
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_01102018
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_12132017
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_11292017
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_11152017
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_11082017
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_11012017
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_10252017
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_10182017
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_10112017
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_10042017
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_09272017
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_09202017
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_09132017
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_09062017
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_08302017
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_08232017
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_07192017
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_06212017
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_06142017
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_06072017
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_05312017
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_05242017
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_05172017
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_05102017
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_04262017specialreport
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_04262017
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_04192017
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_04052017
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_03292017
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_03222017
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_03082017
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_03012017
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_02222017
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_02152017
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_02082017
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_01252017
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_01252017specialreport
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_01182017
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_01042017
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_12142016
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_12142016v2
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_11302016
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_11162016
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_11092016
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_11022016
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_10262016
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_10192016
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_10122016
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_10052016
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_09282016
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_09212016
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_09142016
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_09072016
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_08312016
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_08242016
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_08032016
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_08032016
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_07202016
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_01112017
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_06082016
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/tc_06092016
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/dc_06022016
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_06012016
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_05182016
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_sr_05112016
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_05112016
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_04272016
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_04202016
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_04132016
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_03302016
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_sr_03302016
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_03232016
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_03162016
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_03092016
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_02242016
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_sr_02242016
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_02172016
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_02102016
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_sr_01272016
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_01272016
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_01202016
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_sr_01132016
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_01132016
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/qc_01072016
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_01062016
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_12092015
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_12022015
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_sr_11112015
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_11112015
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_11042015
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_10282015
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_10212015
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_sr_10212015
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_10142015
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_10072015
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_09302015
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_sr_09302015
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_09232015
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_09162015
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_09092015
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_08262015
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_08192015
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_08052015
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_07082015
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_06102015
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/tc_06112015
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/dc_06042015
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_06032015
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_05202015
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_sr_05132015
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_05132015
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_05062015
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_04222015
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_sr_04152015
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_04152015
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_04012015
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_03252015
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_sr_03182015
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_03182015
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_03042015
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_02252015
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_sr_02252015
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_sr_02182015
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_02182015
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_02042015
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_01282015
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_01212015
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_sr_01212015
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_01142015
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/qc_01082015
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_01072015
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_12102014
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_12032014
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_11122014
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_sr_11122014
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_11052014
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_10292014
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_10222014
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_sr_10222014
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_10152014
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_10082014
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_sr_10012014
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_10012014
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_09242014
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_09172014
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_09102014
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_08272014
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_08202014
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_sr_08202014
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_08062014
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_07092014
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_06112014_v2
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_06112014
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/dc_06052014
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_06042014
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_05212014
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_05142014
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_05072014
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_sr_04232014
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_04232014
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_04162014
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_04022014
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_03262014
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/tc_20140313
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_03122014
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_sr_03052014
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_03052014
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_02262014
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_sr_02192014
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_02192014
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_01292014_v2
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_02052014
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_01292014
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_01222014
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_01152014
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/qc_01092014
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_01082014
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_12112013
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_12042013
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_11132013
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_11062013
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_sr_10302013
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_10302013
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_10232013
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_10162013
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_10092013
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_sr_10022013
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_10022013
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_09252013
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_09182013
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_09112013
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_08282013
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_sr_08212013
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_08212013
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_08072013
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_07102013
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_06122013
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/dc_06062013
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_06052013
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_sr_05222013
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_05222013
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_05152013
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_05082013
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_sr_04242013
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_04242013
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_04172013
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_04032013
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_03272013
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_03132013
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/tc_20130314
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_03062013
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_02272013
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_sr_02202013
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_02202013
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_sr_02062013
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_02062013
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_01302013
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_01232013
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_01162013
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/qc_01102013
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_01092013
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_12122012
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_12052012
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_sr_11142012
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_11142012
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_11072012
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_10312012
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_sr_10242012
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_10242012
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_10172012
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_10102012
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_10032012
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_09262012
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_09192012
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_09122012
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_08292012
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_sr_08222012
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_08222012
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_20120829
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_sr_08292012
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_20120822_v2
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_20120822
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_test
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/diplomascount_2012issue34
https://www.nxtbookmedia.com