Education Week - February 18, 2015 - 6

RESULTS AROUND THE WORLD
Global Skills Study Finds
U.S. Millennials Trailing
Shortfalls affect all segments of American society
By Sarah D. Sparks
America's wealthiest and best-educated young
adults still lag behind their peers in other countries
in the literacy, numeracy, and computer-age
problem-solving skills needed to compete in the
global labor market.
That, coupled with yawning racial and socioeconomic
achievement gaps and even grimmer skills
levels for students with less than a college degree,
could lead to long-term difficulty for the country,
according to a new study by the Education Testing
Service Center for Research on Human Capital
and Education in Lawrenceville, N.J.
It's far from the first study to suggest American
students are falling behind their international
peers. But the analysis of U.S. millennials-those
born after 1980, ages 16 to 34 during the study-
specifically highlights that the skills gap goes
beyond young people who are typically seen as
more "at-risk," like immigrants and high school
dropouts.
"We've often looked at these as disconnected,
only looking at the problems of individual
parts," said Martha J. Kanter, a visiting professor
of higher education at New York University
and former assistant education secretary under
President Barack Obama. She was not associated
with the study.
"These findings confirm everything that we
and many others have said about what needs
attention ... ever since [the education report] 'A
Nation at Risk.'"she added. "The findings are as
troubling, if not more so."
The ets study, to be released this week, compares
millennials in 22 industrialized countries,
including the United States, who took part in
the Program for the International Assessment
of Adult Competencies, or piaac, in 2012, the last
time it was given. The Organization for Economic
Cooperation and Development, which runs the
school-based Program for International Student
Assessment, also runs the piaac, which is given
directly to adults in their homes. Unlike the pisa,
which measures academic content skills, the
piaac measures practical, career-oriented literacy
and numeracy skills, and, as of 2012, "problemsolving
in technology-rich environments."
Tied for Last
Across the board, young Americans fared poorly
compared to those in the other countries studied.
They tied for last, with Italy and Spain, in
math skills. In problem-solving, they again performed
at the bottom of the pack, with Ireland,
Poland, and the Slovak Republic. U.S. millennials
also had lower literacy scores than peers in
15 out of 22 countries, tied with a few, and outperformed
only peers in Italy and Spain. Younger
members of the cohort, who presumably grew up
under the last decade of high-stakes accountability
initiatives, were no more competitive globally
than older millennials.
Moreover, the skills gaps persisted among
students who are least likely to be considered
academically at risk. Those who performed in
the top 10 percent of all Americans in their age
group still performed worse than the top performers
in 15 other countries, including Germany
and the Republic of Korea.
While a higher proportion of U.S. millennials
versus those in other countries had earned
a college degree, those with a four-year degree
in the United States still showed lower
math skills than those with college degrees
in any country studied but Poland and Spain.
Moreover, the percentages of Americans who
demonstrated the lowest-level math skills increased
from 2003 to 2012, regardless of what
level of education they had achieved.
Even those with a master's or doctoral degree
demonstrated lower numeracy skills than their
counterparts in all but a few countries. The average
U.S. math score for millennials with a postbaccalaureate
degree, 308, was not only below
the average for countries studied who are in
the Organization for Economic Cooperation and
Development, but was below the average score
for young adults with just a bachelor's degree
in several countries, and near the score for topperforming
students with less than a bachelor's
degree in a few countries.
"We have a number of challenges to face, and it
doesn't look like the millennials are going to help
us grow our way out of the systemic problems,"
said Madeline J. Goodman, a report co-author
and ets researcher. "What it requires us to do is
in some sense rethink the nature of the problem
and not look at [educational] attainment as the
only solution to the problem."
Yawning Gaps
The United States did rank first in one area:
It has the widest gap of any of the countries
studied between the achievement of those in
the top 10 percent and those in the bottom
10 percent of performance.
In the United States, 72 percent of young adults
with a high school diploma or less did not meet
minimum proficiency levels in numeracy. They
scored 54 points lower on a 500-point scale, or
more than a full standard deviation below Americans
with a four-year college degree.
"To put it bluntly, we no longer share the
growth and prosperity of the nation the way we
did in the decades between 1940 and 1980," the
authors wrote, later adding, "The disparity in
private (as well as the public) investments made
on behalf of children between different levels of
[socioeconomic status] can be substantial, lasting,
and self-perpetuating."
American millennials with a high school diploma
or less performed lower than those with a
secondary credential in every country but France.
In all of the countries with large immigrant
populations that were studied, foreign-born
young adults had lower skills than native-born
peers, but in the United States, native-born millennials
showed a greater decline in skills from
the 2003 to 2012 cohorts than did their immigrant
peers.
Racial and ethnic performance gaps continued,
with 12 percent of white and Asian young
adults in America showing advanced levels of
math skill, versus only 3 percent of Hispanic
and 1 percent of black millennials. Yet on average,
oecd countries had about 15 percent of all
millennials performing at an advanced level,
and white and Asian students in the United
States performed below their counterparts in
most other countries studied.
Ms. Kanter cautioned that it is still difficult
to compare the U.S. population of 340 million
with the smaller and more homogenous populations
of many oecd countries. She called for
more research to identify and replicate K-12
and higher education systems that do provide
world-class skills to young adults.
Scan this tag with your smartphone for a link to
"America's Skills Challenge: Millennials and the
Future." www.edweek.org/links
The INSIDE SCHOOL RESEARCH blog
tracks news and trends on this issue.
www.edweek.org/go/insideschoolresearch
6 | EDUCATION WEEK | February 18, 2015 | www.edweek.org
*Significantly different (p < .05) from United States.
Note: The countries/regions are listed in descending order based on average scores for adults age 16-34 on
the PIAAC literacy, numeracy, and problem-solving in technology-rich environments scales.
SOURCE: Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development, Program for the International Assessment
of Adult Competencies (PIAAC), 2012.
Americans between the ages of 16 and 34 fared poorly on tests designed
to measure their grasp of the literacy, numeracy, and computer-age
problem-solving skills needed to compete in the international labor market.
Even the youngest of U.S. millennials lag behind peers in other Organization
for Economic Cooperation and Development countries.
500
310
300
290
280
270
260
250
240
0
LITERACY
Average score, millennials, 16-34
Average score, ages 16-24
282*
280*
274
272
500
300
290
280
270
260
250
240
0
NUMERACY
276*
271*
255
248
500
310
300
290
280
270
260
250
240
0
PROBLEM SOLVING IN TECHNOLOGY-RICH ENVIRONMENTS
295*
295*
284
285
Japan
Finland
Netherlands
Republic of Korea
Flanders (Belguim)
Estonia
Sweden
Australia
Czech Republic
OECD Average
Norway
Canada
Germany
Denmark
Poland
Austria
Slovak Republic
France
United States
Ireland
England and Northern Ireland (UK)
Spain
Italy
Finland
Japan
Flanders (Belguim)
Netherlands
Czech Republic
Sweden
Estonia
Republic of Korea
Austria
Denmark
Germany
Slovak Republic
Norway
OECD Average
Austria
Canada
Poland
France
Ireland
England and Northern Ireland (UK)
Italy
Spain
United States
Finland
Japan
Sweden
Netherlands
Norway
Denmark
Flanders (Belguim)
Republic of Korea
Czech Republic
Australia
Austria
Germany
OECD Average
Canada
Estonia
England and Northern Ireland (UK)
Slovak Republic
Ireland
United States
Poland
http://www.edweek.org/links http://www.edweek.org/go/insideschoolresearch http://www.edweek.org

Education Week - February 18, 2015

Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of Education Week - February 18, 2015

Schools Weighing Access To Social Media Passwords
Education Week - February 18, 2015
Measles Outbreak Cues Action On Vaccine Rules
States Shedding Power To Adopt Class Materials
Those Opposing Restraint and Seclusion Gain New Traction With State Legislatures
New Venture to Evaluate Technology
Contents
News in Brief
Report Roundup
Global Skills Study Finds U.S. Millennials Trailing
Broad Foundation Puts Urban Schools Prize On Hold Indefinitely
Blogs of the Week
FCC Plan for ‘Net Neutrality’ Addresses Schools’ Needs
Calif. Districts Seeking $1 Billion To Fund Testing Mandate
Obama, Congress Set to Clash On FY16 Budget
GOP in Driver’s Seat as Congress Tackles NCLB Rewrite
NCLB-Waiver Renewal Gears Up; Duncan Holds Weakened Hand
Blogs of the Week
State of the States
FRANK D. LoMONTE: Don’t Silence Young (Female) Journalists
KAREN HAWLEY MILES: Why Annual State Testing Makes Cents
JANE HIRSCHI: ‘Hands in the Dirt’ Learning
Letters
TopSchoolJobs Recruitment Marketplace
GILLIAN McGOLDRICK: When Morality and Law Trump School Tradition
Education Week - February 18, 2015 - New Venture to Evaluate Technology
Education Week - February 18, 2015 - 2
Education Week - February 18, 2015 - Contents
Education Week - February 18, 2015 - News in Brief
Education Week - February 18, 2015 - Report Roundup
Education Week - February 18, 2015 - Global Skills Study Finds U.S. Millennials Trailing
Education Week - February 18, 2015 - Broad Foundation Puts Urban Schools Prize On Hold Indefinitely
Education Week - February 18, 2015 - Blogs of the Week
Education Week - February 18, 2015 - 9
Education Week - February 18, 2015 - 10
Education Week - February 18, 2015 - 11
Education Week - February 18, 2015 - FCC Plan for ‘Net Neutrality’ Addresses Schools’ Needs
Education Week - February 18, 2015 - 13
Education Week - February 18, 2015 - Obama, Congress Set to Clash On FY16 Budget
Education Week - February 18, 2015 - 15
Education Week - February 18, 2015 - GOP in Driver’s Seat as Congress Tackles NCLB Rewrite
Education Week - February 18, 2015 - NCLB-Waiver Renewal Gears Up; Duncan Holds Weakened Hand
Education Week - February 18, 2015 - State of the States
Education Week - February 18, 2015 - 19
Education Week - February 18, 2015 - 20
Education Week - February 18, 2015 - 21
Education Week - February 18, 2015 - 22
Education Week - February 18, 2015 - 23
Education Week - February 18, 2015 - KAREN HAWLEY MILES: Why Annual State Testing Makes Cents
Education Week - February 18, 2015 - JANE HIRSCHI: ‘Hands in the Dirt’ Learning
Education Week - February 18, 2015 - Letters
Education Week - February 18, 2015 - 27
Education Week - February 18, 2015 - TopSchoolJobs Recruitment Marketplace
Education Week - February 18, 2015 - 29
Education Week - February 18, 2015 - 30
Education Week - February 18, 2015 - 31
Education Week - February 18, 2015 - GILLIAN McGOLDRICK: When Morality and Law Trump School Tradition
Education Week - February 18, 2015 - CT1
Education Week - February 18, 2015 - CT2
Education Week - February 18, 2015 - CT3
Education Week - February 18, 2015 - CT4
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