Education Week - February 18, 2015 - 24

COMMENTARY
Don't Silence Young (Female) Journalists
By Frank D. LoMonte
I
n Illinois, a student editor's plan to engage teens in
the local school board election by hosting an online
candidate forum on the website of the student newspaper
is scuttled when her superintendent cancels
the forum, explaining: "Too much could go wrong."
In New Jersey, a student editor is forbidden from
publishing a story about multiple employee grievances
filed against her district's superintendent, a
fact publicly aired at a school board meeting covered only by
high school reporters. The principal tells the editor that "personnel
issues" are categorically off-limits for student publications.
In
Wisconsin, a student editor is punished for a searingly
candid magazine article interviewing survivors of sexual assault.
It's an article hailed by experts in the field as sensitively
done journalism of professional caliber, but which her superintendent
considers "inappropriate" for teen readers.
These students share two qualities with Gillian McGoldrick,
who has suffered withering attacks-up to and including a
threat of criminal charges-from a school board bent on silencing
her editorial crusade against her Pennsylvania high
school's racially offensive mascot.
These student journalists are all victims of a pervasive mentality
elevating school image control over educational quality.
And they're all women.
Censorship has always been with us. The Student Press
Law Center was established in response to a groundbreaking
study, "Captive Voices," which concluded 40 years ago that
journalism students and teachers were being driven from the
newsroom by administrative censorship-"the fundamental
cause of the triviality, innocuousness, and uniformity that
characterize the high school press."
But in recent years, K-12 school administrators have become
unapologetically heavy-handed in retaliating for speech
that may provoke controversy or reflect unfavorably on the
school's image. Disproportionately, because student journalism
is increasingly a female-dominated activity, those bearing
the impact are young women-women like Kylie Sposato of
Pemberton Township, N.J. When Ms. Sposato tried to publish
a column decrying lax enforcement of her high school's antismoking
policies, her principal vetoed the article, removed a
journalism teacher with 20 years of professional newspaper
experience, canceled the news-writing class, and ordered the
students not to write about being censored.
When schools are challenged over the misuse of censorship
authority, they invariably fall back on the same tired rationalization:
The law allows it.
With narrow exceptions, that's probably true. In a 1988 ruling,
Hazelwood School District v. Kuhlmeier, the U.S. Supreme
Court divested students of meaningful First Amendment protection
when they use a school-subsidized outlet to convey a
message.
But "it's legal" is not a justification. Schools hold students
and teachers to a standard of optimal behavior, not minimally
legally compliant behavior. Just ask the teachers who've been
fired for griping about their supervisors or sharing racy photos
on Facebook. "Poor judgment" is regularly regarded as a
firing offense, except when you're a principal, and the "judgment"
involves your students' rights.
Schools do not serve lunches with an eyedropper to make
sure that no student receives one calorie more than the
minimum to stave off starvation. Yet many apportion free-expression
rights in exactly that way, enforcing policies cribbed
straight from Justice Byron White's Hazelwood opinion, which
sets the floor for the least protection the law allows. State
school boards' associations even publish Hazelwood-based
"model" policies, as if "barely legal" were an ideal to aspire to.
The public is entitled to expect schools to aim for a standard
higher than "the worst thing we can do to kids and get away
with it." Federal law allows employers to pay a $7.25 per hour
minimum wage, but we would not consider $290 a week to be
"model" compensation for teachers. We would regard it, accurately,
as "one penny away from unlawful."
Debating whether censoring the discussion of controversial
subjects is legal distracts from the question that really matters:
whether it is educationally responsible.
During 2013, the 25th anniversary of the Hazelwood ruling,
the nation's largest organizations of professional journalists,
college journalism educators, and high school journalism advisers
adopted resolutions condemning reliance on the Hazelwood
standard to suppress the discussion of issues of public
concern. An August 2013 declaration from the Society of Professional
Journalists explains that "it is well-documented the
Hazelwood censorship clause impedes an educator's ability to
adequately instruct and train students in professional journalistic
values and practices, including the right to question
authority and investigate performances of governance."
It's tempting to say that principals and superintendents
shouldn't be second-guessed because they have demanding
jobs. But it is always "easier" for government officials to ignore
individual rights. It would be "easier" to solve crimes if
suspects could be beaten until they confessed. Respecting constitutional
values means doing things the hard way because
it is also the right way.
It can be tempting, too, to trivialize "high school journalism"
as unworthy of adults' concern. But we wouldn't mistreat and
miseducate students in geometry class and shrug it off as
Why Annual State Testing Makes Cents
"
By Karen Hawley Miles
D
o we know how well school
districts are using money?
Do we know how well they
are educating our children?
We can research a district's
budget in the public
record, but we won't know
whether that money is actually
being spent wisely unless there is a consistent
measure of student progress. Yet one proposal
to revise a landmark federal education law
might dismantle the system we have used for 14
years to track and compare how much students
are learning.
The proposal before the U.S. Senate's Health,
Education, Labor, and Pensions Committee would
revise the current authorization of the Elementary
and Secondary Education Act-the 1965 law
known in its latest version, passed by Congress
in 2001, as the No Child Left Behind Act-to no
longer require states to give annual statewide assessments
in reading and math to all students in
grades 3-8 (and once in high school). Instead, the
Getting rid of useful
yardsticks for
measuring student
learning should
concern everyone
who cares about
making good use of
taxpayer money."
proposed legislation would offer states the option
of testing each student only once every few
years, for example, or allow districts to choose
their own assessments.
This kind of local control may sound appealing.
But getting rid of annual statewide
testing would in fact undermine the ability of
educators, parents, and policymakers to identify
who's excelling and who's struggling; which
strategies work, and which don't; and where we
should direct our limited resources to prepare
all students for college and careers that require
strong writing, critical-thinking, and quantitative
skills. Consider the following:
* States need annual assessments to compare
districts and support them effectively. For example,
Massachusetts, in 2011, identified the
Lawrence public schools as deeply struggling,
the district having ranked at the bottom for four
years in a row on the statewide MCAs exam. Accordingly,
Massachusetts put the school system
into state receivership and provided extra resources,
talented leaders, and more flexibility.
Today, Lawrence is an emerging success story,
with math scores that have climbed from 28
24 | EDUCATION WEEK | February 18, 2015 | www.edweek.org/go/commentary
percent to 41 percent proficiency. That kind of
intervention couldn't have happened without a
statewide benchmark that revealed the degree
to which Lawrence was lagging and needed
help.
* Districts need annual statewide assessments
to compare their own schools and support them
effectively. The fast-improving Denver school
system uses annual state test scores, along
with other data, to determine which schools to
expand, which need extra support, and which
should be rewarded for performance or progress.
Annual test data also helped Denver determine
that its math-tutoring program had a high
return on investment, compared with other improvement
strategies, giving school officials the
evidence needed to persuade the community
to fund it. Without annual tests, a district cannot
precisely track student growth, identify its
causes, and make the case for why some strategies
work better than others.
*Schools need annual statewide assessment
data to support students effectively. In Charlotte,
N.C., principals and their supervisors have
worked to review student-achievement data and
iStockphoto
http://www.edweek.org/go/commentary

Education Week - February 18, 2015

Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of Education Week - February 18, 2015

Schools Weighing Access To Social Media Passwords
Education Week - February 18, 2015
Measles Outbreak Cues Action On Vaccine Rules
States Shedding Power To Adopt Class Materials
Those Opposing Restraint and Seclusion Gain New Traction With State Legislatures
New Venture to Evaluate Technology
Contents
News in Brief
Report Roundup
Global Skills Study Finds U.S. Millennials Trailing
Broad Foundation Puts Urban Schools Prize On Hold Indefinitely
Blogs of the Week
FCC Plan for ‘Net Neutrality’ Addresses Schools’ Needs
Calif. Districts Seeking $1 Billion To Fund Testing Mandate
Obama, Congress Set to Clash On FY16 Budget
GOP in Driver’s Seat as Congress Tackles NCLB Rewrite
NCLB-Waiver Renewal Gears Up; Duncan Holds Weakened Hand
Blogs of the Week
State of the States
FRANK D. LoMONTE: Don’t Silence Young (Female) Journalists
KAREN HAWLEY MILES: Why Annual State Testing Makes Cents
JANE HIRSCHI: ‘Hands in the Dirt’ Learning
Letters
TopSchoolJobs Recruitment Marketplace
GILLIAN McGOLDRICK: When Morality and Law Trump School Tradition
Education Week - February 18, 2015 - New Venture to Evaluate Technology
Education Week - February 18, 2015 - 2
Education Week - February 18, 2015 - Contents
Education Week - February 18, 2015 - News in Brief
Education Week - February 18, 2015 - Report Roundup
Education Week - February 18, 2015 - Global Skills Study Finds U.S. Millennials Trailing
Education Week - February 18, 2015 - Broad Foundation Puts Urban Schools Prize On Hold Indefinitely
Education Week - February 18, 2015 - Blogs of the Week
Education Week - February 18, 2015 - 9
Education Week - February 18, 2015 - 10
Education Week - February 18, 2015 - 11
Education Week - February 18, 2015 - FCC Plan for ‘Net Neutrality’ Addresses Schools’ Needs
Education Week - February 18, 2015 - 13
Education Week - February 18, 2015 - Obama, Congress Set to Clash On FY16 Budget
Education Week - February 18, 2015 - 15
Education Week - February 18, 2015 - GOP in Driver’s Seat as Congress Tackles NCLB Rewrite
Education Week - February 18, 2015 - NCLB-Waiver Renewal Gears Up; Duncan Holds Weakened Hand
Education Week - February 18, 2015 - State of the States
Education Week - February 18, 2015 - 19
Education Week - February 18, 2015 - 20
Education Week - February 18, 2015 - 21
Education Week - February 18, 2015 - 22
Education Week - February 18, 2015 - 23
Education Week - February 18, 2015 - KAREN HAWLEY MILES: Why Annual State Testing Makes Cents
Education Week - February 18, 2015 - JANE HIRSCHI: ‘Hands in the Dirt’ Learning
Education Week - February 18, 2015 - Letters
Education Week - February 18, 2015 - 27
Education Week - February 18, 2015 - TopSchoolJobs Recruitment Marketplace
Education Week - February 18, 2015 - 29
Education Week - February 18, 2015 - 30
Education Week - February 18, 2015 - 31
Education Week - February 18, 2015 - GILLIAN McGOLDRICK: When Morality and Law Trump School Tradition
Education Week - February 18, 2015 - CT1
Education Week - February 18, 2015 - CT2
Education Week - February 18, 2015 - CT3
Education Week - February 18, 2015 - CT4
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