Education Week - February 17, 2016 - (Page 6)

Study: Showing Standout Work to Students Can Backfire Struggling learners put off by exemplars By Sarah D. Sparks Sharing examples of stellar student work is a time-honored tradition for helping students understand how to improve, but new research suggests that, in some cases, it can turn off struggling students. In a series of studies published online this month in the journal Psychological Science, researchers Todd Rogers of Harvard University and Avi Feller of the University of California, Berkeley, found struggling young adult and adult students in an online course didn't get inspired by their classmates' excellent work-quite the opposite. "One of the surprising, negative consequences of the approach is when students are exposed to truly exceptional work, they use it as a reference point and realize they are not capable of such exceptional quality," said Rogers, an associate professor of public policy at Harvard's Kennedy School of Government. "It can lead to decreased motivation and eventually quitting if you believe the exceptional work is actually typical." Massively open online courses, or MOOCs, draw thousands of students, but often have very high dropout rates. The researchers examined student achievement and persistence in one class of 150,000 students of whom fewer than 4,000 completed the class-a 2 percent completion rate that is not uncommon in this type of course. The class randomly assigned students to read and review peers' essays while working on an essay of their own. They and the teacher separately rated each essay on a scale of 0-9, with 9 being the best. Of the more than 5,700 students who participated in the assignment, about two-thirds completed the full class, and 68 percent "passed" with a final grade of 85 or higher to earn a certificate of credit for the course. Falling Short of Peers However, students who had reviewed the best essays had significantly lower final grades and were less likely to finish the course. Of the students who reviewed essays that were a full standard deviation above the average essay in quality, only 64 percent passed the class. Of students who read the 100 best-rated essays in the class, only 45 percent passed. To put that into context, students who actually wrote top-rated essays were 18 percentage points more likely to pass the class than students who wrote only average essays, but students who read top-rated essays were 23 percentage points less likely to pass than the class average. By contrast, people who read essays of lower quality had no difference in their final grade compared with peers who had not read them. That can create a dilemma for teachers trying to give students clear expectations of what they must produce. "I get the irony: When we teach and we're doing something new, we want to show them what good work looks like," Rogers said, "but I think it's just when it's new-when we don't have a very strong sense of what typical ability looks like-that students are most vulnerable to this kind of discouragement." Beverly DeVore-Wedding, a 28year veteran high school and community college science teacher and a National Science Teachers Association high school division director, said she has seen that sort of social comparison in her own classes, both with adolescents and adults. "When I only show them the topnotch, I have students who get frustrated and say, 'I can't do this,' " she said. Other studies have found similar results when people-and particularly adolescents-feel lacking in comparison to their peers. For example, University of Missouri researchers found students using Facebook reported higher rates of feeling envy and depressive symptoms after viewing posts about friends' vacations, new homes, or happy relationships. Putting Things in Perspective Teachers can't and shouldn't shield students from work that's significantly better than their own, Rogers said, but they can help to counter feelings of despair. "In life, the marketplace for exceptional performance is robust. We are disproportionately likely to be exposed to exceptional work of others, rather than mediocre work of others," Rogers said. "One way to fix it, we think, is to just label it as 'exceptional,' rather than allowing people to think that the exceptional is typical." For science-project poster sessions, for example, DeVore-Wedding said she only uses individual examples from students' work that are at least 6 years old, so the students themselves have long left the school. Rogers noted that students are less likely to take an exemplary essay as typical if it is obvious the teacher has held onto it for years. She also pulls examples from many different student projects rather than comparing them holistically in front of the class. One student may have a beautifully formatted poster with incomplete citations; another may have a thorough Principals Urged To 'Shadow' Students Q&A 6 | EDUCATION WEEK | February 17, 2016 | www.edweek.org Coverage of learning mindsets and skills is supported in part by a grant from the Raikes Foundation. Education Week retains sole editorial control over the content of this coverage. Susie Wise, the K-12 lab network director at Stanford University's d.school, is an organizer of the upcoming Shadow a Student challenge. Building empathy is goal A group of education organizations is challenging school leaders around the country to spend one day shadowing individual students so they can develop greater empathy for their charges' experiences. Participants in the Shadow a Student Challenge (shadowastudent.org) sign up to follow one child for a full day during the week of With Stanford's d.school Feb. 29 to March 4, eating K-12 lab network director lunch with them, attending SUSIE WISE classes, and maybe even riding the bus with them. Those taking part will connect on social media to share what they learn, and will get resources from the organizers-School Retool, a fellowship that encourages school leaders to promote deeper learning and solve problems in their buildings; IDEO, a consultant group; and the d.school at Stanford University, which encourages innovation in schools. SUSIE WISE, the K-12 lab network director for Stanford's d.school, talked about the vision of Shadow a Student with Staff Writer Evie Blad. The exchange has been edited for length and clarity. literature review but faulty analysis. The online-classroom environment also could exacerbate students' discouragement, DeVore-Wedding said, because students have less opportunity to build working relationships with their classmates. "They do not know their peers, and they may not understand the value of peer evaluation to improve their own work [and] skills," she said. Other studies have shown top performers often feel alienated in K-12 schools, and Rogers wonders if social comparisons could lead to bullying of gifted students. "One of the things we're really interested in is, what does it do to you socially? I think in a classroom where you can't quit, it probably leads you to derogate exceptional performers," Rogers said. Developing learning communities among students may help them think about learning from peer work rather than comparing themselves socially, DeVore-Wedding said. "I treat the reviewing of others' work as a learning experience," she said, "so they are not evaluating the quality of the work, but 'what did I learn from my peers' projects?' " Why is empathy something school leaders should include in their improvement strategies? WISE: To a person, [principals who have shadowed students] all had realizations, really different ones that were very profound to them. It felt like it was a kind of interesting gateway for them in terms of shifting their mindset about their role as a leader. What is the difference between following one student and the day-to-day life of being in and out of classrooms? WISE: You're intending to really shift your position to not be the leader who is directing traffic and working on 47 things at once. One of the things you get to see is the space in between, for instance. You see transitions and you see posture. Some of the leaders who've done it have been surprised with how passive the student's day is, how much sitting there is, how many transitions there are that don't make much sense. You don't see that when you're looking at a master schedule and you're in your leader mode. It's very important work to make sure all of the pieces fit together, but then you have to also sit in it and see 'how does this work for the student?' You want school leaders to find "hacks" to solve problems they may identify while shadowing. What's a hack? WISE: [We work] with people who are in situations that feel constrained, and that's why we've landed on hacks. A hack is a small, scrappy experiment that gets you moving. So the opposite of a hack is saying, "We need to get a bond and raise $10 million and build a new building and then have a new bell schedule." A hack is, "Gosh, I have heard about advisory," which is where you really ensure that every student has a deep relationship with adults in your school. And, to roll that out schoolwide, that takes a lot of orchestration. ... Try it. Get two teachers to try a collaborative project with two classes. Do an advisory with six kids for one week and then find out from the kids and from the teachers: What does that feel like? What shifted? Could this be an important way for us to work? And then keep going. We call it a quick win. A hack helps you get to a quick win or a quick loss, and that's really important too. How should leaders pick which student to shadow? WISE: The most important thing is to be really intentional about it. Who are the groups of students in your school that you know the least about? What's most important is what might you see and how will that connect with the questions you have about your school. ... Whether you are a struggling student or a star student or someone in between, the experience of being noticed and having someone with authority show that they care is actually really powerful and validating. Coverage of social and emotional learning is supported in part by a grant from the NoVo Foundation. Education Week retains sole editorial control over the content of this coverage. http://www.shadowastudent.org http://www.edweek.org

Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of Education Week - February 17, 2016

Education Week - February 17, 2016
Preservice Programs Seek To Head Off Teacher Biases
Black Male Teachers a Rarity
Consolidation Fight Erupts In Vermont
In Cities With Choice, Single- Enrollment Systems Hit Hurdles
DIGITAL DIRECTIONS: Letting Students Work From Home Adds Policy Twist
Contents
News in Brief
Report Roundup
Q&A: Principals Urged To ‘Shadow’ Students
Study: Showing Standout Work To Students Can Backfire
U.S. Manages to Reduce Share Of Low PISA Scores— in Science
Blogs of the Week
Lawmakers Pledging to Keep Close Eye on ESSA Implementation
Obama Budget Doubles As Policy Document
Blogs of the Week
Five-State Study Examines Teaching Shifts Under Core
Kansas High Court Strikes Down Stopgap Aid Formula
State of the States
Increased Accountability of Teacher Prep Gives Equity the Back Seat
Self-Care Is the Educator’s Core Standard
Beware the Racist Subtext Of Children’s Books
Letters
TopSchoolJobs Recruitment Marketplace
Dispatch From Flint, Mich.: Our Water Crisis Is a Crisis of Trust

Education Week - February 17, 2016

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