Education Week - February 15, 2017 - 24


COMMENTARY

Beyond Blame: Understanding Student Suicide

S

By Robert Evans & Mark Kline

uicide is the worst of losses,
especially when the victim is
an adolescent. It's every parent's nightmare. And it's every
principal's, too-not only for
the horrific loss of the student, but for the censure that
can often follow. Parents, community members, and even students may
criticize the school for too much stress and
pressure, too much homework and competition, and too little support. As the superintendent of schools in Palo Alto, Calif.-a
district with a teen-suicide rate four times
the national average-noted last fall, "any
school that experiences a student suicide
should brace for a tsunami of blame."
The tsunami is particularly painful because guilt always follows suicide. Everyone
who knew the student wonders, "What did
I miss? What could I have done?" As psychologists who have consulted in schools
on more than 40 student suicides, we've
seen that educators, who invest themselves
deeply in their students, are especially vulnerable. They struggle with their own shock
and grief, and they are deeply hurt when
accused of not caring or doing enough.
To try to prevent future tragedies, schools
that experience student suicide often adopt
steps for student wellness in the aftermath,
such as screening students for depression,
training teachers and students in signs of
risk for suicide, reducing homework, adding
mindfulness electives, and modifying the
start time of the school day. Some of these
changes may improve overall student wellbeing, but the key causes of suicide often lie
beyond the school's reach.
Of the more than 44,000 suicide deaths in
the United States reported in 2015, about
1,700 were young adults ages 14 to 18, according to the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. And the full range of
suicidal behavior among students is even
more troubling. The numbers of high school
students who reported suicidal thoughts
and attempts fell significantly between
1991 and 2009, but those numbers are now
on the rise.
In a CDC survey given to more than
15,000 public and private high school students nationwide in 2015, nearly 18 percent of students in grades 9-12 reported
they had seriously considered attempting
suicide during the preceding 12 months. In
the same time frame, nearly 15 percent of
students said they made a plan about how
they would attempt suicide, and 9 percent
said they had attempted suicide one or
more times. Roughly 3 percent of students
had made a suicide attempt in the previous
12 months that required medical attention.
These numbers confirm that although
suicide deaths are more rare among students than adults, suicidality is not. This

| INSIDE |

18

raises the crucial question: Why would a
student self-inflict death?
Suicide doesn't have just one cause. There
may be a precipitating event that triggers
the student's death, but vulnerability to
suicide in adolescence is overwhelmingly
determined by factors intrinsic to the individual or influenced by family history.
The American Academy of Pediatrics reports that a large majority of teens who
commit suicide (up to 90 percent) have a
mental illness, such as depression or bipolar disorder-serious conditions that
require intensive treatment and are often
hereditary.
Students can also inherit a susceptibility to substance abuse or a tendency
toward impulsive aggression when frustrated, and may have a family history
of suicidal behavior-each of which increases the risk of suicide. So, too, can a
dysfunctional family environment marked
by intense parent-child conflict or by
physical or sexual abuse. Other risk fac-

HOW ESSA CAN TEACH
SCHOOL LEADERS
ABOUT EQUITY

24 | EDUCATION WEEK | February 15, 2017 | www.edweek.org/go/commentary

tors include struggles with sexual orientation and gender identity, multiple concussions, and social problems at school,
including bullying.
But school is almost never the primary
cause of suicide. In fact, much so-called
"school pressure" is actually pressure about
school. In schools where we have worked,
many principals reported that parents
have crowded a forum on stress following a
student suicide, yet soon returned to pressing school staff members and their own

"

Schools aren't clinics;
they cannot treat mental
disorders, substance
abuse, or family discord."

Melody Newcomb for Education Week

19

THE CLASSROOM,
NOT THE BATHROOM,
IS THE BATTLEGROUND
FOR GENDER RIGHTS

20

LETTERS TO
THE EDITOR

children about college admission, academic
performance, and the need for a more demanding course schedule.
Furthermore, those who attempt to
harm themselves do not often give clear
warning signs, according to Michael C.
Miller, a psychiatrist at Harvard Medical School. While many schools create
supports for students struggling with
thoughts of suicide, we have seen that
these very efforts can raise the expectation that schools will prevent suicide and
can put the blame on educators if tragedy
strikes.
Schools aren't clinics; they cannot treat
mental disorders, substance abuse, or
family discord. Yet, because we have assigned-or abdicated-so much responsibility for students' well-being to schools,
they have become the natural scapegoat.
What, then, can schools do? Educators
have to support not only students and
families, but also one another. This is a
delicate balancing act. A student's death
must be acknowledged and doing so can
help bring a school community together.
It is ideal for administrators to gather
faculty and parents and give them a few
simple pointers for talking with students,
along with a list of relevant articles and
clinical-referral sources.
When students are identified as being
at risk, educators must urge parents to
seek treatment and may also have to help
parents find a doctor or therapist who
can provide such help. If parents resist,
educators must emphasize the gravity of
the concern in blunt terms; press parents
about why they would deny the student
help; and if need be, raise the prospect of
involving child-welfare agencies.
As we have seen over and over in our
work, and as scores of principals and guidance counselors have told us, students-
even if they're quite upset-typically recover faster from the tragedy of a peer's
suicide than adults do. And if a suicide
occurs, schools can contribute to healing
the student body by pausing to address
the loss, sharpening their watch over the
students of greatest concern, and encouraging the return to school routines, which
offer a comforting continuity.
Above all, when it comes to addressing
the wrenching matter of student suicide,
schools, families, and communities need to
expect from administrators and teachers
what they expect from their students: not
perfection, just their very best. n
ROBERT EVANS, a psychologist, is the executive
director of The Human Relations Service, a
nonprofit community mental-health agency in
Wellesley Hills, Mass. MARK KLINE is the clinical
director of The Human Relations Service and a
psychologist.

20

READERS
REACT


http://www.edweek.org/go/commentary

Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of Education Week - February 15, 2017

Education Week - February 15, 2017
State Leaders Hit the Books
Amid Subtly Shifting Test Landscape, Support Slips for Common-Core Tests
Mistrust in School Can Have Lasting Negative Effects
News in Brief
Report Roundup
RTI May Fall Short in Flagging Certain Students
Post-Mortem on inBloom Reignites Data-Sharing Debates
FCC Alters ‘Lifeline’ Broadband Effort
DIGITAL DIRECTIONS: FCC Yanks Report On E-Rate Success
DeVos Takes Reins at Ed. Department, While Anxieties Persist
Congress Targets ESSA Regulations
Governors, State Lawmakers Roll Out School Choice Plans
State of the States
IRMA ZARDOYA: How ESSA Can Teach School Leaders About Equity
JACOB BERGLIN: The Classroom, Not the Bathroom, Is the Battleground for Gender Rights
Letters
Readers React
TopSchoolJobs Recruitment Marketplace
ROBERT EVANS & MARK KLINE: Beyond Blame: Understanding Student Suicide
Education Week - February 15, 2017 - Mistrust in School Can Have Lasting Negative Effects
Education Week - February 15, 2017 - 2
Education Week - February 15, 2017 - 3
Education Week - February 15, 2017 - News in Brief
Education Week - February 15, 2017 - Report Roundup
Education Week - February 15, 2017 - RTI May Fall Short in Flagging Certain Students
Education Week - February 15, 2017 - Post-Mortem on inBloom Reignites Data-Sharing Debates
Education Week - February 15, 2017 - 8
Education Week - February 15, 2017 - DIGITAL DIRECTIONS: FCC Yanks Report On E-Rate Success
Education Week - February 15, 2017 - 10
Education Week - February 15, 2017 - 11
Education Week - February 15, 2017 - Congress Targets ESSA Regulations
Education Week - February 15, 2017 - Governors, State Lawmakers Roll Out School Choice Plans
Education Week - February 15, 2017 - 14
Education Week - February 15, 2017 - 15
Education Week - February 15, 2017 - State of the States
Education Week - February 15, 2017 - 17
Education Week - February 15, 2017 - IRMA ZARDOYA: How ESSA Can Teach School Leaders About Equity
Education Week - February 15, 2017 - JACOB BERGLIN: The Classroom, Not the Bathroom, Is the Battleground for Gender Rights
Education Week - February 15, 2017 - Readers React
Education Week - February 15, 2017 - 21
Education Week - February 15, 2017 - TopSchoolJobs Recruitment Marketplace
Education Week - February 15, 2017 - 23
Education Week - February 15, 2017 - ROBERT EVANS & MARK KLINE: Beyond Blame: Understanding Student Suicide
Education Week - February 15, 2017 - CW1
Education Week - February 15, 2017 - CW2
Education Week - February 15, 2017 - CW3
Education Week - February 15, 2017 - CW4
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_01222020
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_01152020
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_01082020
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_12112019
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_12042019
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_11272019
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_11132019
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_11062019
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_10302019
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_10232019
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_10162019
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_10092019
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_10022019
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_09252019
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_09182019
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_09112019
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_09042019
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_08282019
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_08212019
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_07172019
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_06192019
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_06122019
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_06032019
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_05152019
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_05082019
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_05012019
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_04242019
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_04172019
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_04102019
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_04032019
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_03202019
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_03132019
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_03062019
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_02272019
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_02202019
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_02132019
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_02062019
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_01232019
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_01162019
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_01092019
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_12122018
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_12052018
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_11282018
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_11142018
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_11072018
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_10312018
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_10242018
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_10172018
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_10102018
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_10032018
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_09262018
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_09192018
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_09122018
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_09052018
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_08292018
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_08222018
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_07182018
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_06202018
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_06132018
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_06062018
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_05302018
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_05232018
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_05162018
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_05092018
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_05022018
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_04252018
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_04182018
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_04112018
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_04042018
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_03212018
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_03072018
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_sr_03072018
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_02282018
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_02212018
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_02142018
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_02072018
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_01242018
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_01172018
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_01102018
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_12132017
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_11292017
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_11152017
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_11082017
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_11012017
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_10252017
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_10182017
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_10112017
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_10042017
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_09272017
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_09202017
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_09132017
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_09062017
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_08302017
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_08232017
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_07192017
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_06212017
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_06142017
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_06072017
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_05312017
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_05242017
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_05172017
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_05102017
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_04262017specialreport
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_04262017
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_04192017
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_04052017
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_03292017
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_03222017
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_03082017
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_03012017
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_02222017
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_02152017
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_02082017
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_01252017
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_01252017specialreport
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_01182017
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_01042017
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_12142016
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_12142016v2
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_11302016
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_11162016
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_11092016
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_11022016
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_10262016
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_10192016
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_10122016
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_10052016
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_09282016
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_09212016
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_09142016
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_09072016
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_08312016
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_08242016
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_08032016
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_08032016
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_07202016
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_01112017
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_06082016
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/tc_06092016
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/dc_06022016
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_06012016
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_05182016
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_05112016
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_sr_05112016
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_04272016
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_04202016
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_04132016
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_03302016
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_sr_03302016
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_03232016
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_03162016
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_03092016
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_02242016
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_sr_02242016
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_02172016
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_02102016
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_sr_01272016
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_01272016
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_01202016
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_sr_01132016
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_01132016
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/qc_01072016
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_01062016
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_12092015
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_12022015
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_sr_11112015
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_11112015
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_11042015
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_10282015
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_10212015
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_sr_10212015
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_10142015
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_10072015
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_09302015
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_sr_09302015
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_09232015
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_09162015
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_09092015
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_08262015
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_08192015
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_08052015
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_07082015
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_06102015
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/tc_06112015
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/dc_06042015
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_06032015
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_05202015
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_sr_05132015
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_05132015
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_05062015
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_04222015
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_sr_04152015
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_04152015
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_04012015
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_03252015
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_sr_03182015
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_03182015
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_03042015
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_02252015
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_sr_02252015
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_sr_02182015
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_02182015
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_02042015
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_01282015
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_01212015
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_sr_01212015
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_01142015
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/qc_01082015
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_01072015
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_12102014
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_12032014
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_11122014
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_sr_11122014
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_11052014
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_10292014
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_10222014
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_sr_10222014
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_10152014
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_10082014
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_sr_10012014
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_10012014
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_09242014
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_09172014
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_09102014
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_08272014
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_08202014
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_sr_08202014
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_08062014
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_07092014
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_06112014_v2
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_06112014
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/dc_06052014
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_06042014
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_05212014
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_05142014
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_05072014
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_sr_04232014
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_04232014
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_04162014
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_04022014
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_03262014
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/tc_20140313
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_03122014
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_sr_03052014
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_03052014
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_02262014
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_sr_02192014
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_02192014
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_01292014_v2
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_02052014
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_01292014
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_01222014
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_01152014
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/qc_01092014
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_01082014
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_12112013
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_12042013
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_11132013
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_11062013
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_sr_10302013
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_10302013
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_10232013
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_10162013
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_10092013
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_sr_10022013
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_10022013
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_09252013
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_09182013
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_09112013
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_08282013
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_sr_08212013
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_08212013
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_08072013
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_07102013
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_06122013
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/dc_06062013
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_06052013
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_sr_05222013
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_05222013
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_05152013
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_05082013
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_sr_04242013
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_04242013
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_04172013
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_04032013
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_03272013
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_03132013
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/tc_20130314
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_03062013
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_02272013
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_sr_02202013
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_02202013
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_sr_02062013
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_02062013
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_01302013
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_01232013
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_01162013
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/qc_01102013
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_01092013
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_12122012
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_12052012
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_sr_11142012
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_11142012
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_11072012
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_10312012
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_sr_10242012
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_10242012
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_10172012
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_10102012
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_10032012
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_09262012
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_09192012
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_09122012
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_08292012
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_sr_08222012
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_08222012
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_20120829
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_sr_08292012
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_20120822_v2
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_20120822
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_test
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/diplomascount_2012issue34
http://www.nxtbookMEDIA.com