Education Week - January 28, 2015 - 8

International Study Ranks Schools on Social Stress, Equity
A WORLD OF DIFFERENCES
Broader take urged
for global studies
By Sarah D. Sparks
Washington
What do international comparisons
really tell us about how American
education can improve?
As global-benchmarking studies-such
as the Program for International
Student Assessment,
the Trends in International Mathematics
and Science Study, and others-gain
a higher profile in policy
discussions, a new study suggests
there's still much to be learned
about how social and economic
factors shape education outcomes
worldwide.
"The Iceberg Effect," released last
week by the Horace Mann League
of the U.S.A. and the National Superintendents
Roundtable, a Seattle-based
group of district leaders
in 30 states, aims to put student
achievement and long-term education
outcomes within the broader
social and economic contexts of different
countries.
James J. Harvey, the executive
director at the National Superintendents
Roundtable and the author
of the study, argued in a briefing
on the study in Washington
that short-term student outcomes,
such as results from international
reading or math tests, and even
system outcomes, like the average
education level of adults, are only
the "tip of the iceberg" in getting
a read on an education system's
overall health.
"When we cherry-pick one piece
of information, like pisa scores, we
are acting as though that's the only
thing that counts," Mr. Harvey said
in an interview on the study. "We
wanted to get a discussion started
about the fact that, for 30 years,
we've been fiddling around with
the tip of the iceberg and done
nothing at all to address all this
that's going on below the water
line."
The study came in the same
week that the Organization for
Economic Cooperation and Development,
the Paris-based group
that administers pisa, released reports
finding that most countries
have not evaluated or followed up
on education policies launched in
the last decade. They also showed
that across the 37 countries studied,
17 percent of young people, on
average, leave education without a
secondary-level credential, such as
a high school diploma.
The Invisible 'Iceberg'
So what's going on below the surface?
For
his report, Mr. Harvey winnowed
data from the last five years
in 40 international-data systems
for nine industrialized countries
considered economically and educationally
similar: Canada, China,
Finland, France, Germany, Italy,
Japan, the United Kingdom, and
the United States. The report compares
the countries on 24 indicators
in six areas, with a total of 40
points available in each area.
In addition to student and system
outcomes, the study identified
four "dimensions" that may
contribute to students' health and
educational growth:
* Economic equity, including income
inequality, child poverty, infant-mortality
rates, and economic
mobility across generations;
* Social stress, including rates
of violent and drug-related deaths
overall, births to parents who are
ages 15 to 19, and the percentage
of each country's population that is
foreign-born;
* Family supports, including access
to preschool, child-death rates
as a result of abuse or neglect,
and family benefits-both as total
spending on families with two children
and as a percentage of a nation's
gross domestic product; and
* School supports, including
total spending and spending as a
percentage of each nation's gdp,
"
When we cherry-pick
one piece of
information, like PISA
scores, we are acting
as though that's the
only thing that
counts."
JAMES J. HARVEY
National Superintendents Roundtable
average class size, and teacher
workload.
The data show dramatic differences
in the educational contexts
of different countries, but no clear
patterns arise about how different
social and economic supports or
stresses play into student achievement
in either the short or long
term.
The United States, for example,
has the best long-term system
outcomes of any country, with the
most-educated adults and a significant
share of the world's high
achievers in science on the pisa.
But it has middling short-term student
outcomes and provides nearly
the lowest level of support for families,
even in the face of high levels
of economic inequality and social
stress. (See chart, this page.)
The United Kingdom provides
better supports and has lower levels
of social stress and inequality,
but has poorer student achievement
and adult education than the
United States.
The data point to dramatic differences
in the scale and demographics
of the countries to which
the United States often compares
itself.
"As a school leader, I've been
frustrated every time pisa comes
8 | EDUCATION WEEK | January 28, 2015 | www.edweek.org
out," said Janet M. Robinson, the
superintendent of the Stratford,
Conn., public schools and a roundtable
member, at the briefing.
"People take as common wisdom
that our schools are totally inadequate
compared to these others,"
she said, but the study suggests it's
difficult to tell whether American
schools would benefit from adopting
different countries' policies and
practices.
No Clear Patterns
For example, the study found
that while students take several
benchmark exams at age 15, that
age represents a different point in
students' educational careers in
different countries.
In the United States, 15-yearolds
are usually in 9th or 10th
grade, with a few more years until
graduation. In several European
countries, that point marks the
end of secondary school. In China,
there is a major gateway exam between
9th and 10th grades, when
most students take international
assessments.
"Once you start trying to dig into
a country's system-their methods
of generating data and their
approach to separate populations
in the country-you recognize it
is apples and oranges and pears,"
said Charles Fowler, the executive
director of the online Suburban
School Superintendents and the
president-elect of the Port-Ludlow,
Wash.-based Horace Mann
League, a nonprofit advocacy and
research group dedicated to public
education.
Finland, for example, has fewer
than 543,000 students in its comprehensive
system, which serves
students ages 7 to 15. That's about
100,000 fewer students than the
Los Angeles public school district,
according to the district and Statistics
Finland.
To take that comparison a step
further, "The Iceberg Effect" notes
that a little more than 5 percent
of children 17 and younger in Finland
live in families earning less
than half the country's median
income, a marker of poverty. More
than 80 percent of Los Angeles
public school students and more
than half of U.S. public school students
nationwide are considered
low income.
According to the report, Finland
has greater equity, fewer social
stresses, and better supports than
nearly every other country in the
study, and better short-term outcomes
for its students, but it ranks
below the United States, Canada,
and the United Kingdom in longterm
education outcomes.
Similarly, China has no data
available on its supports for
schools and young families, or on
student performance in the vast
majority of the country. Shanghai,
often used as a stand-in for China
as a whole, represents only about
10 percent of the nation's students,
and none with disabilities.
"Our hope is by putting these
findings out in front of people,
8 CHINA
SOURCE: "The Iceberg Effect,"
Horace Mann League of the U.S.A., National Superintendents Roundtable
anomalous as some may be, it
will stimulate research to get at
some of these strange results," Mr.
Fowler said. "You can have all the
resources in the world, but if you
cannot bring to bear the kind of social
and health resources needed
to improve the mental and economic
well-being of children and
families, you are not going to make
much progress."
Scan this tag with your
smartphone for a link
to "The Iceberg Effect:
An International Look
at Often-Overlooked Education
Indicators." www.edweek.org/links
The INSIDE SCHOOL RESEARCH blog
tracks news and trends on this issue.
www.edweek.org/go/
insideschoolresearch
CHINA
FINLAND
ITALY
FRANCE
GERMANY
U.K.
CANADA
U.S.A.
11
40
31
30
29
29
25
20
13
SYSTEM OUTCOMES
U.S.A.
CANADA
U.K.
FINLAND
GERMANY
JAPAN
FRANCE
ITALY
15
18
24
24
28
28
31
In a new international study, U.S. schools rank poorly for social stress, such
as having high rates of births or violent deaths among young people, but the
nation's education system still gets top marks for long-term outcomes like
having a high proportion of educated adults.
SOCIAL STRESS
JAPAN
39
http://www.edweek.org/links http://www.edweek.org/go/insideschoolresearch http://www.edweek.org/go/insideschoolresearch http://www.edweek.org

Education Week - January 28, 2015

Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of Education Week - January 28, 2015

Education Week - January 28, 2015
Activists Learn Art of ‘Test Refusal’
Ed. School Deans Join Forces To Bolster Teacher Preparation
N.C. District Rebounds From Ed-Tech Meltdown
Poverty Data Signal Urgency for Schools
Contents
Report Roundup
News in Brief
Chicago’s Closures Drove Most to Higher-Rated Schools
More Districts Expected to Follow Boston on Longer Days
International Study Ranks Schools on Social Stress, Equity
Blogs of the Week
No Firm Direction on Testing Set At Senate Panel’s ESEA Hearing
As Job Description Grows, So Does Churn for State Chiefs
K-12 Issues Given Short Shrift in State of the Union Address
State of the States
Blogs of the Week
SUSAN H. FUHRMAN: Measurement Alone Cannot Propel Improvement
SAMINA HADI-TABASSUM: Too Much Discipline Hurts Majority-Minority Schools
GARRISON WALTERS: Dump Management ‘Science,’ And Change Learning Attitudes
Letters
TopSchoolJobs Recruitment
Marketplace
Education Week - January 28, 2015 - Poverty Data Signal Urgency for Schools
Education Week - January 28, 2015 - 2
Education Week - January 28, 2015 - Contents
Education Week - January 28, 2015 - News in Brief
Education Week - January 28, 2015 - 5
Education Week - January 28, 2015 - Chicago’s Closures Drove Most to Higher-Rated Schools
Education Week - January 28, 2015 - More Districts Expected to Follow Boston on Longer Days
Education Week - January 28, 2015 - International Study Ranks Schools on Social Stress, Equity
Education Week - January 28, 2015 - Blogs of the Week
Education Week - January 28, 2015 - 10
Education Week - January 28, 2015 - 11
Education Week - January 28, 2015 - 12
Education Week - January 28, 2015 - 13
Education Week - January 28, 2015 - 14
Education Week - January 28, 2015 - 15
Education Week - January 28, 2015 - 16
Education Week - January 28, 2015 - 17
Education Week - January 28, 2015 - As Job Description Grows, So Does Churn for State Chiefs
Education Week - January 28, 2015 - K-12 Issues Given Short Shrift in State of the Union Address
Education Week - January 28, 2015 - State of the States
Education Week - January 28, 2015 - Blogs of the Week
Education Week - January 28, 2015 - 22
Education Week - January 28, 2015 - 23
Education Week - January 28, 2015 - SAMINA HADI-TABASSUM: Too Much Discipline Hurts Majority-Minority Schools
Education Week - January 28, 2015 - GARRISON WALTERS: Dump Management ‘Science,’ And Change Learning Attitudes
Education Week - January 28, 2015 - Letters
Education Week - January 28, 2015 - 27
Education Week - January 28, 2015 - 28
Education Week - January 28, 2015 - Marketplace
Education Week - January 28, 2015 - 30
Education Week - January 28, 2015 - 31
Education Week - January 28, 2015 - 32
Education Week - January 28, 2015 - CT1
Education Week - January 28, 2015 - CT2
Education Week - January 28, 2015 - CT3
Education Week - January 28, 2015 - CT4
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