Education Week - January 28, 2015 - (Page 24)

COMMENTARY Measurement Alone Cannot Propel Improvement By Susan H. Fuhrman P roposed new rules from the U.S. Department of Education that would require states to rate teacher-preparation programs on the basis of outcomes, including student learning and employment-retention statistics for their recent graduates, make sense in theory. The public and aspiring educators deserve to know which programs turn out competent teachers. In practice, however, implementing new rules doesn't necessarily mean teacher education programs will improve. Many scholars have criticized the measures suggested by the department that states might use for outcomes: the reliance on a single standardized test to judge growth in student learning; burdensome classroom-observation systems that strain the capacity of administrators; the limits of existing methodologies to completely eliminate the effects of school or student-background influences in tracing the contributions of individual teachers; and the measurement errors inherent in such systems. These are legitimate concerns, but there's a deeper problem: the idea that measures alone can spur improvement. Two problems with continual searches for upgraded measures are readily apparent. " The evaluation of education schools in this country does indeed need fixing." iStockphoto First, states have had measures of teacher education programs' outcomes for years. But they haven't acted on them. They have administered licensure exams for decades, for example. But they have set passing rates way too low and have rarely taken any action against schools whose graduates have the lowest scores. According to the education policy think tank Education Sector, a majority of states have never identified a low-performing program, and only 129 of 13,000 programs have ever been singled out by a state for low performance. The political will to confront weak programs (especially those in the districts of politically powerful legislators) is noticeably absent, and imposing sanctions such as those that the federal government is considering (denying student aid to candidates at ineffective schools) focuses on the victims-often the neediest students-not the schools and the states. Second, states not only lack will, they lack capacity. The number of education schools that could benefit from help to improve far outnumber the few that might merit closing as a result of any outcome-measurement system. We know from studies of states that already have systems of tracing teacher contributions to student learning back to education schools that there's a wide variation in college response. Some colleges know what to do with the data, what changes they might suggest, but many don't. More specific than the old rules, the new rules call for Too Much Discipline Hurts Majority-Minority Schools By Samina Hadi-Tabassum W atching the protests and listening to the chants of "Hands up, don't shoot" following last summer's fatal police shooting of Michael Brown in Ferguson, Mo., fueled an argument that I have been making for some time with my graduate students and colleagues. For almost two decades, I have been coaching and mentoring first-year teachers in Chicago's public schools; however, in the last few years, I have noticed a cultural shift in those schools with predominantly African-American enrollments. Some are turnaround schools that Mayor Rahm Emanuel's office has taken over because of low student test scores, as well as other complex challenges, including weak leadership and ineffective instruction. When you enter these turnaround schools, there is often an eerie silence. You never hear children's voices in the hallways. Rather, you see lines of AfricanAmerican children crossing the school with their hands behind their backs or their fingers pressed against their lips to indicate silence, and their eyes always facing front. " When I asked them whether their schools would have the same rules if the children were white, the young teachers responded with a unanimous no. " The monochromatic lines of uniformed children mimic prison lines, and the teachers' efforts seem focused on ensuring that students do not talk to each other and do not walk outside the line. All day long, an immense amount of time and energy is spent making sure young African-American students are taught to obey. In one K-12 school, when one of my graduate students had to go to the restroom, I walked her students to the cafeteria. Even in the cafeteria, children were not allowed to talk to each other. I made the foolish mistake of having a conversation with a table of 1st grade girls when another teacher came over to me and yelled out, "You do not talk during lunch." At first, I thought the teacher was being sarcastic, but it was disheartening to realize after a few minutes that this young teacher, who was white, had been indoctrinated by her school to think that African-American and Latino children should not be allowed to talk at lunch. When the students were given time to actually act like children on the playground, they were often admonished for "acting like animals" when they returned to their classrooms. Of course, my first-year teachers do not buy into this ideology of repression. But when I asked them whether their schools would have the same rules if the children were white, the young teachers responded with a unanimous no, coupled with the fear of losing their jobs if they, too, did not obey. Caught between educational theory that advocates for the whole child and a school culture that resembles a prison's, my first-year teachers have to make strategic decisions daily about what is best for their students and what rules they may need to subvert while avoiding the administration's gaze. On this front, one of my graduate students, whom I'll call Angela, stayed after my class one day, quite upset. 24 | EDUCATION WEEK | January 28, 2015 | www.edweek.org/go/commentary http://www.edweek.org/go/commentary

Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of Education Week - January 28, 2015

Education Week - January 28, 2015
Activists Learn Art of ‘Test Refusal’
Ed. School Deans Join Forces To Bolster Teacher Preparation
N.C. District Rebounds From Ed-Tech Meltdown
Poverty Data Signal Urgency for Schools
Contents
Report Roundup
News in Brief
Chicago’s Closures Drove Most to Higher-Rated Schools
More Districts Expected to Follow Boston on Longer Days
International Study Ranks Schools on Social Stress, Equity
Blogs of the Week
No Firm Direction on Testing Set At Senate Panel’s ESEA Hearing
As Job Description Grows, So Does Churn for State Chiefs
K-12 Issues Given Short Shrift in State of the Union Address
State of the States
Blogs of the Week
SUSAN H. FUHRMAN: Measurement Alone Cannot Propel Improvement
SAMINA HADI-TABASSUM: Too Much Discipline Hurts Majority-Minority Schools
GARRISON WALTERS: Dump Management ‘Science,’ And Change Learning Attitudes
Letters
TopSchoolJobs Recruitment
Marketplace

Education Week - January 28, 2015

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http://www.nxtbookMEDIA.com