Education Week - January 25, 2017 - 20


COMMENTARY

How ESSA Could Change
Education for the Better

A

By Jack Markell

Getty

Getty

"

The new law is an opportunity,
not an inevitability."

fter 14 years of
No Child Left
Behind-a federal
education law that
brought needed attention to underserved students
across the country,
but became increasingly out of touch
with classroom realities-states are
ready for changes under the Every
Student Succeeds Act, which goes into
full effect in the 2017-18 school year.
Under ESSA, states can choose
their own measures of progress for
student learning aligned to their visions of what education should look
like. In the wake of final federal regulations for accountability released in
November, deadlines are approaching
for states to submit their proposals to
the U.S. Department of Education for
how they will hold schools accountable under the law. These accountability plans must show how states
will implement academic standards
aligned to help students stay on track
for success in college and the work-

place; ensure students from all backgrounds have an equal footing; track
progress of schools across a variety of
measures not limited to test scores;
and identify ways to offer additional
support where students are struggling.
Educators and policymakers have
known since ESSA became law in
December 2015 that a decrease of
federal authority to influence policies like accountability systems and
teacher evaluation would place more
responsibility on states to make
good decisions. However, the unprecedented presidential-election outcome
puts even more pressure on states
than we could have imagined just a
few months ago. The Trump administration is likely to favor maximum
flexibility for states to develop plans
and set policy under ESSA.
The new law is an opportunity,
not an inevitability. It is more vital
than ever before to acknowledge that
states' rights have not always been
synonymous with equitable treatment of all students. To realize the
promise of flexibility, states will need
to take more seriously their obliga-

tions to ensure that the students who
need the most help-students of color,
foster children, English-language
learners, students in poverty, and
first-generation students-get the
resources and attention they deserve.
States, led by governors, legislators, state chiefs, and state boards of
education, need to take advantage of
this moment. Current accountability
systems don't include the measures
of programs and resources we know
students need. And if they remain in
place, we won't realize the true promise of ESSA, which is a return to locally tailored solutions and state-led
progress in education.
How should states respond?
Student success depends on a
wide range of factors-from quality
early-childhood education, to high
academic standards and access to
rigorous coursework, to social-emotional learning. Yet, for more than a
decade, states have focused almost
exclusively on math- and readingtest scores as ways to measure school
and student progress. While teachers and school leaders have worked
hard to offer their students a well-

Accountability Should Add Up to More Than Test Scores

"A

By Brian Gill & Jennifer Lerner
ccountability" has become a
four-letter word to many educators, who are frustrated
with steadily increasing consequences attached to student test scores. A year ago,
responding in part to growing
dissatisfaction with accountability in the form of high-stakes testing, Congress jettisoned
the much-maligned No Child Left Behind Act after 14 years.
The new Every Student Succeeds Act continues testing requirements, but now allows states to determine consequences
attached to the results.
States are now working on accountability plans to conform
to the new law, and most states will reduce the influence of
tests. But lowering the stakes of tests need not-and should
not-mean reducing accountability. Instead, policymakers
and educators should take advantage of the opportunity to
create richer and more constructive systems for evaluating
and supporting those who are educating our nation's children.
Accountability need not be defined exclusively as highstakes testing. Outside of education policy, accountability
means more than just attaching consequences to outcomes.
Markets make firms accountable through customers' ability
to choose competitors; reviewers make restaurants accountable by publicizing their ratings; medical rounds make doctors accountable to their colleagues by requiring explanations
of treatment.
For several decades, experimental psychologists and behavioral economists have examined various forms of accountability that can have either positive or negative effects in
different circumstances. In a paper published in the journal
Behavioral Science and Policy this past fall, we reviewed this
literature and applied it to education, concluding that policymakers should use multiple accountability tools in tandem

to promote continuous improvement in school performance.
To be sure, multiple studies have found that students can
benefit from high-stakes testing policies. But the behavioral
science literature shows many unintended negative effects
of outcome-based accountability, some of which have been
evident in schools: narrowing the curriculum, teaching to the
test, and even cheating. Other forms of accountability are
needed to temper these negative effects.
In particular, professional accountability has historically
been neglected as a tool for school improvement. It merits
more attention. Medical rounds, for example, create such accountability for doctors through standards of practice, observation of practice, identification of exemplary practice, and,
most importantly, feedback to improve practice.
Principals have long observed teachers once or twice a year,
but these occasions have typically been dog-and-pony shows,
with little useful feedback to teachers, upwards of 98 percent
of whom are deemed "satisfactory," according to a 2009 report
from the teacher-workforce group TNTP. Fortunately, ambitious schools and districts across the country are trying to reimagine professional accountability. Observation rubrics are
being redesigned with the aim of making them more helpful
to teachers. Expert teachers are being hired as instructional
coaches to provide one-on-one support. In New York City's
high-performing The Equity Project (TEP) Charter School,
teachers are routinely expected to observe and be observed
by their colleagues-not once or twice a year, but twice every
week.
Indeed, one of the lessons we found in behavioral science is
that observation alone can create accountability, even without
formal consequences. The laboratory literature finds many
instances in which accountability produces powerful effects
on behavior through mechanisms as simple as the "identifiability" of the individual actor, an expectation that actions
must be explained, and the mere presence of an observer.
Transparency of practice permits professional accountability. Schools like Kansas City's Kauffman Charter School in

20 | EDUCATION WEEK | January 25, 2017 | www.edweek.org/go/commentary

Missouri are creating literal transparency by putting interior
windows on classrooms. But others remain bound by rules
that reject transparency, such as the Chicago public schools'
blanket prohibition of any use of classroom video in teacher
evaluations. Professional accountability means that teachers
cannot close their doors and teach any way they please.
Nor should professional accountability apply only to teachers. Tools like the Vanderbilt Assessment of Leadership in Education create professional accountability for school leaders,
by giving teachers input on the evaluation of their principals,
in a 360-style approach that is common in the business world
through incorporating input from supervisors, subordinates,
peers, and oneself.
Some schools are also recognizing that professional accountability involves client input. Pittsburgh is among the school
districts now using student surveys to inform evaluations of
educators, just as is routinely done at the college level. The
results of those surveys predict how much students learn in
class. Students can distinguish the teachers who are challenging them to learn from those who are not.
Differentiating performance is a hallmark of professional
accountability. President Obama's Department of Education
may have been overzealous in seeking to evaluate teachers
based on test scores, but its support for ratings scales that
recognize exceptional teachers was on the mark. Los Angeles recently took a step in the wrong direction when, in an
agreement with the local teachers' union, it eliminated the
top category of performance. As a result, the district will
again become an inverted Lake Wobegon in which all teachers are satisfactory and none are above average. This is belied
not only by reams of research but also by what every parent
knows to be true: Some teachers are exceptional. They should
be recognized-and their colleagues should be learning from
them.
As policymakers and educators take advantage of the federal Every Student Succeeds Act's new flexibility, we hope
they keep these facts in mind: First, reducing a near-exclusive


http://www.edweek.org/go/commentary

Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of Education Week - January 25, 2017

Education Week - January 25, 2017
Black Students Most Likely To Be Arrested at School
Crossroads for K-12 Policy With Trump Now at Helm
News in Brief
Spec. Ed. Enrollments Rise
Report Roundup
Coalition for Essential Schools To End Its 33-Year Run
DIGITAL DIRECTIONS: Faster, Cheaper Tech for Schools Noted
Study of i3 Flags Issues For School Innovators
Q&A: She Recorded Classmate’s Arrest, Then Got Arrested, Too
Nominee to Head Ed. Dept. Grilled on Potential Business Conflicts
DeVos Takes Hot Seat In Confirmation Quest
State of the States
Trump Calls Nation’s Schools ‘Flush With Cash,’ Failing
JACK MARKELL: How ESSA Could Change Education for the Better
BRIAN GILL & JENNIFER LERNER: Accountability Should Add Up To More Than Test Scores
KAREN LEWIS: Betsy DeVos and Rahm Emanuel: Two Sides of the Same Coin
Letters
TopSchoolJobs Recruitment Marketplace
JULIE FLAPAN & JANE MARGOLIS: Stop Scapegoating and Start Educating
Education Week - January 25, 2017 - Crossroads for K-12 Policy With Trump Now at Helm
Education Week - January 25, 2017 - 2
Education Week - January 25, 2017 - 3
Education Week - January 25, 2017 - News in Brief
Education Week - January 25, 2017 - Report Roundup
Education Week - January 25, 2017 - 6
Education Week - January 25, 2017 - Coalition for Essential Schools To End Its 33-Year Run
Education Week - January 25, 2017 - DIGITAL DIRECTIONS: Faster, Cheaper Tech for Schools Noted
Education Week - January 25, 2017 - Study of i3 Flags Issues For School Innovators
Education Week - January 25, 2017 - 10
Education Week - January 25, 2017 - 11
Education Week - January 25, 2017 - Q&A: She Recorded Classmate’s Arrest, Then Got Arrested, Too
Education Week - January 25, 2017 - 13
Education Week - January 25, 2017 - DeVos Takes Hot Seat In Confirmation Quest
Education Week - January 25, 2017 - State of the States
Education Week - January 25, 2017 - 16
Education Week - January 25, 2017 - 17
Education Week - January 25, 2017 - Trump Calls Nation’s Schools ‘Flush With Cash,’ Failing
Education Week - January 25, 2017 - 19
Education Week - January 25, 2017 - BRIAN GILL & JENNIFER LERNER: Accountability Should Add Up To More Than Test Scores
Education Week - January 25, 2017 - KAREN LEWIS: Betsy DeVos and Rahm Emanuel: Two Sides of the Same Coin
Education Week - January 25, 2017 - Letters
Education Week - January 25, 2017 - 23
Education Week - January 25, 2017 - TopSchoolJobs Recruitment Marketplace
Education Week - January 25, 2017 - 25
Education Week - January 25, 2017 - 26
Education Week - January 25, 2017 - 27
Education Week - January 25, 2017 - JULIE FLAPAN & JANE MARGOLIS: Stop Scapegoating and Start Educating
Education Week - January 25, 2017 - CT1
Education Week - January 25, 2017 - CT2
Education Week - January 25, 2017 - CT3
Education Week - January 25, 2017 - CT4
Education Week - January 25, 2017 - SCover1
Education Week - January 25, 2017 - SCover2
Education Week - January 25, 2017 - S1
Education Week - January 25, 2017 - S2
Education Week - January 25, 2017 - S3
Education Week - January 25, 2017 - S4
Education Week - January 25, 2017 - S5
Education Week - January 25, 2017 - S6
Education Week - January 25, 2017 - S7
Education Week - January 25, 2017 - S8
Education Week - January 25, 2017 - S9
Education Week - January 25, 2017 - S10
Education Week - January 25, 2017 - S11
Education Week - January 25, 2017 - S12
Education Week - January 25, 2017 - S13
Education Week - January 25, 2017 - S14
Education Week - January 25, 2017 - S15
Education Week - January 25, 2017 - S16
Education Week - January 25, 2017 - S17
Education Week - January 25, 2017 - S18
Education Week - January 25, 2017 - S19
Education Week - January 25, 2017 - S20
Education Week - January 25, 2017 - SCover3
Education Week - January 25, 2017 - SCover4
Education Week - January 25, 2017 - CW1
Education Week - January 25, 2017 - CW2
Education Week - January 25, 2017 - CW3
Education Week - January 25, 2017 - CW4
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