Education Week - January 25, 2017 - 10


n POLICING AMERICA'S SCHOOLS: An Education Week Analysis

Do Police Belong in Schools?
Debate Is Far From Settled
CONTINUED FROM PAGE 1

up 25 percent of enrollment in schools with arrests
but 35 percent of students arrested at school. And
in Arizona, Native Americans comprise 8 percent of
enrollment in schools with arrests, but 23 percent of
students arrested.
Nationwide, black boys are at the highest risk,
three times as likely to be arrested at school as their
white male peers. And African-American girls fare
little better: They are more than 1.5 times as likely
as white boys to be arrested, the analysis shows.
In four states with disproportionately high arrest
rates for black students, the gap between their representation in overall enrollment and in the share of
students arrested is quite narrow-within 3 percentage points. In these states, black students make up a
relatively low share of overall enrollment.
Nationwide, nearly 8,000 schools reported a total
of nearly 70,000 arrests in the 2013-14 school year.
Black students were more likely than their white
peers to attend a school where arrests occurred.
When black students' share of arrests is compared
to their overall enrollment in all schools, the disparities are even more severe.
And rates of student referrals to law enforcement
show similar patterns of racial disparities at the
state and national levels. Nationwide, black students made up 17 percent of enrollment in schools
that referred students to law enforcement, but were
26 percent of students who were referred, the analysis found. Referrals, which are more common than
arrests, are broadly defined as any time a student
is reported to any law enforcement agency or official
"regardless of whether official action is taken," according to the federal data set. Referrals can include
citations, court referrals, and, in some cases, arrests.
All of these findings mirror a host of persistent disparities for students of color, including higher rates
of school suspensions, less exposure to experienced
educators, and lower likelihood of access to rigorous
coursework.
There is disagreement in the research and policy
worlds about why certain groups of students are
arrested at higher rates. Differences in local approaches to school safety and in exposure to outof-school factors such as poverty and crime are
among the reasons cited.
But civil rights advocates say students of color
often bear the brunt of overly punitive zero-tolerance policies and state laws that can lead to
arrests for relatively minor misbehavior, such as
vandalism or classroom arguments.
And the presence of police in schools, such advocates say, makes arrests and referrals more likely,
with results that can derail students' lives.
"Far too often when police are consistently present
in black and brown communities, they criminalize
behavior they wouldn't in other places," said Allison
Brown, the executive director of the Communities
for Just Schools Fund and a former lawyer for the
U.S. Department of Justice.
"Especially for young people, that is just devastating to their chances for success," she said.

A New Era
Overall, student arrest and referral rates are
relatively low compared to other forms of school
discipline. Education Week's analysis found that the
arrests documented in 2013-14 represent less than
one-tenth of a percent of students nationwide. In the
same year, schools reported 223,000 referrals. The
federal data do not specify why students were arrested or referred to law enforcement.

n WHO ATTENDS SCHOOLS WITH LAW ENFORCEMENT?
At the middle and high
school levels, black
students are the most
likely to attend a school
with police. At the
elementary school level,
Native American students
are the most likely.

Percent
80%

HIGH SCHOOL

70

MIDDLE SCHOOL

60
50
40
30

ELEMENTARY SCHOOL

20
10

● Black
● Native American

n DISPARITIES IN ARREST

RATES FOR BLACK STUDENTS
Nationwide, black students
are arrested in school at
disproportionately high levels.
Share of Overall
Enrollment

33%
BLACK

White Students: 34%

NOTE: Because of rounding,
percentages may not add
up to 100.

19%
Share of Enrollment
In Schools With
At Least One Arrest
White Students: 43%

The findings come as debates about the role of police in schools-and communities-enter a new era.
While some civil rights and student groups argue
that police don't belong in schools at all, some school
leaders, parents, and police groups say they are
necessary for security. Problems, they argue, can be
avoided through proper hiring and training practices
for school-based officers.
In the 2013-14 school year, schools reported 44,000
part-time and full-time onsite law enforcement officers, another set of federal data show. Researchers
say the presence of officers in schools has increased
in the wake of high-profile shootings-such as those
at Columbine High School in Colorado and Sandy
Hook Elementary School in Connecticut-that
stoked widespread public fears.
Among 90,000 public schools, 29 percent reported
at least one law-enforcement officer in 2013-14,

10 | EDUCATION WEEK | January 25, 2017 | www.edweek.org

Share of School
Arrests

ALL OTHER
STUDENTS

White Students: 50%

16%

● White ● Hispanic ● Asian
● Native Hawaiian ● Two or More Races

SOURCE: Education Week
Research Center original
analysis of Civil Rights Data
Collection and Common Core
of Data, 2017

Education Week's analysis showed. That includes 46
percent of high schools, 42 percent of middle schools,
and 18 percent of elementary schools.
Very little is known about school resource officers, typically the label given to police who work in
schools-such as their backgrounds, their training,
and the policies that govern their interactions with
students. Only 12 states require specialized training
for officers who work the school beat, according to a
2015 study by the American Institutes for Research.
Against that backdrop, President Barack Obama's
administration used its megaphone to draw attention to concerns that had guided the work of advocates at the state and local levels for years. The
Obama administration attached new strings to
federal grants used to hire school police-requiring
schools to clearly define when officers should intervene with students and to set training requirements.

DATA: Learn more
about school police,
student arrests,
and referrals to
law enforcement.
www.edweek.org/
go/SchoolPolicing


http://www.edweek.org/go/SchoolPolicing http://www.edweek.org/go/SchoolPolicing http://www.edweek.org

Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of Education Week - January 25, 2017

Education Week - January 25, 2017
Black Students Most Likely To Be Arrested at School
Crossroads for K-12 Policy With Trump Now at Helm
News in Brief
Spec. Ed. Enrollments Rise
Report Roundup
Coalition for Essential Schools To End Its 33-Year Run
DIGITAL DIRECTIONS: Faster, Cheaper Tech for Schools Noted
Study of i3 Flags Issues For School Innovators
Q&A: She Recorded Classmate’s Arrest, Then Got Arrested, Too
Nominee to Head Ed. Dept. Grilled on Potential Business Conflicts
DeVos Takes Hot Seat In Confirmation Quest
State of the States
Trump Calls Nation’s Schools ‘Flush With Cash,’ Failing
JACK MARKELL: How ESSA Could Change Education for the Better
BRIAN GILL & JENNIFER LERNER: Accountability Should Add Up To More Than Test Scores
KAREN LEWIS: Betsy DeVos and Rahm Emanuel: Two Sides of the Same Coin
Letters
TopSchoolJobs Recruitment Marketplace
JULIE FLAPAN & JANE MARGOLIS: Stop Scapegoating and Start Educating
Education Week - January 25, 2017 - Crossroads for K-12 Policy With Trump Now at Helm
Education Week - January 25, 2017 - 2
Education Week - January 25, 2017 - 3
Education Week - January 25, 2017 - News in Brief
Education Week - January 25, 2017 - Report Roundup
Education Week - January 25, 2017 - 6
Education Week - January 25, 2017 - Coalition for Essential Schools To End Its 33-Year Run
Education Week - January 25, 2017 - DIGITAL DIRECTIONS: Faster, Cheaper Tech for Schools Noted
Education Week - January 25, 2017 - Study of i3 Flags Issues For School Innovators
Education Week - January 25, 2017 - 10
Education Week - January 25, 2017 - 11
Education Week - January 25, 2017 - Q&A: She Recorded Classmate’s Arrest, Then Got Arrested, Too
Education Week - January 25, 2017 - 13
Education Week - January 25, 2017 - DeVos Takes Hot Seat In Confirmation Quest
Education Week - January 25, 2017 - State of the States
Education Week - January 25, 2017 - 16
Education Week - January 25, 2017 - 17
Education Week - January 25, 2017 - Trump Calls Nation’s Schools ‘Flush With Cash,’ Failing
Education Week - January 25, 2017 - 19
Education Week - January 25, 2017 - BRIAN GILL & JENNIFER LERNER: Accountability Should Add Up To More Than Test Scores
Education Week - January 25, 2017 - KAREN LEWIS: Betsy DeVos and Rahm Emanuel: Two Sides of the Same Coin
Education Week - January 25, 2017 - Letters
Education Week - January 25, 2017 - 23
Education Week - January 25, 2017 - TopSchoolJobs Recruitment Marketplace
Education Week - January 25, 2017 - 25
Education Week - January 25, 2017 - 26
Education Week - January 25, 2017 - 27
Education Week - January 25, 2017 - JULIE FLAPAN & JANE MARGOLIS: Stop Scapegoating and Start Educating
Education Week - January 25, 2017 - CT1
Education Week - January 25, 2017 - CT2
Education Week - January 25, 2017 - CT3
Education Week - January 25, 2017 - CT4
Education Week - January 25, 2017 - SCover1
Education Week - January 25, 2017 - SCover2
Education Week - January 25, 2017 - S1
Education Week - January 25, 2017 - S2
Education Week - January 25, 2017 - S3
Education Week - January 25, 2017 - S4
Education Week - January 25, 2017 - S5
Education Week - January 25, 2017 - S6
Education Week - January 25, 2017 - S7
Education Week - January 25, 2017 - S8
Education Week - January 25, 2017 - S9
Education Week - January 25, 2017 - S10
Education Week - January 25, 2017 - S11
Education Week - January 25, 2017 - S12
Education Week - January 25, 2017 - S13
Education Week - January 25, 2017 - S14
Education Week - January 25, 2017 - S15
Education Week - January 25, 2017 - S16
Education Week - January 25, 2017 - S17
Education Week - January 25, 2017 - S18
Education Week - January 25, 2017 - S19
Education Week - January 25, 2017 - S20
Education Week - January 25, 2017 - SCover3
Education Week - January 25, 2017 - SCover4
Education Week - January 25, 2017 - CW1
Education Week - January 25, 2017 - CW2
Education Week - January 25, 2017 - CW3
Education Week - January 25, 2017 - CW4
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