Education Week - January 24, 2018 - 17

was the student on the computer while no other students
were (earned reinforcement); why did the students get to eat
throughout the day (very limited diets and especially grumpy
when hungry); why a student needed to be taken to the restroom, not just sent there (student safety and respect for their
dignity). This all shows a lack of understanding by teachers,
administration, parents, and even district-level special education staff."
The education field has been sounding the alarm for years
about special educators leaving the field, and the declining
number of candidates who want to enter it. The shortages
are not evenly spread: Urban areas, rural areas, and schools
for students with severe disabilities face the largest shortfalls.
While the number of students with disabilities has
been going down-by about 1 percent between 2006 and
2016-the drop in the number of special education teachers has been much sharper. The Education Week Research
Center found that in 2016, the most recent year for which
complete federal statistics are available, there were about
348,000 special education teachers for 5.9 million students
ages 6-21 with disabilities in the United States. The student-teacher ratio has risen from 14 students per teacher
in 2006 to 17 students per teacher in 2016.

So how can school and central-office administrators
grapple with these problems?
One way is through mentorship, particularly of earlycareer special educators.
Lucinda Sanchez, the associate superintendent for special
education for Albuquerque schools in New Mexico, said her
district has seen some success through a two-year mentorship program for special educators entering the field via
alternative-licensure programs.
"We have support teachers who can go out and help them
in classroom settings. We do a lot of talking about strategies,
how they're feeling in their classrooms, the challenges they're
facing," she said.
The support teachers are also meant to give the educators
someone to talk to who is not in the position of evaluating
them, as a principal would be.
And Sanchez said she knows firsthand how that's needed.
As an overwhelmed first-year teacher, "I walked in the
door and thought, 'What a big mistake I've made,' " she
said. Student teaching offers some experience, but "when
you see 28 personalities, with all those different needs, it's
hard to put all those theories into practice."

Forging Connections

Juggling Competing Demands
And as they work with increasing numbers of students,
special educators are required to navigate an abundance of
paperwork, driven by federal, state, and local requirements
stemming from the Individuals with Disabilities Education
Act. They also often have to navigate weighty administrative
responsibilities, along with tricky peer-to-peer relationships with principals and with general education teachers.
"They get into teaching to teach, and they don't always have
an opportunity to do that," said Elizabeth Bettini, an assistant
professor of special education at Boston University. Bettini, a
former special educator, has written several research papers
about special educators' working conditions. "The truth is that
there are many other responsibilities that take up their time."
On average, she said, these teachers are spending about a
third of their time on instruction, with administrative and
supervisory tasks taking up the rest of it.
And the job itself can vary dramatically. Although all
teachers have to deal with different student needs, those
in regular education know that their primary job is to cover
their curriculum. In contrast, special educators may be
working alongside general educators to support learning,
or tasked with providing small-group instruction, or overseeing students in a resource-room environment where
they're responsible for teaching all subjects.
Nathan Jones, also an assistant professor of special education at Boston University, explained how this variability played
a role in his research. As part of the project testing a teacherevaluation instrument, Jones and his colleagues recorded 80
special educators at work in the classroom for a year.
"No two special education teachers' daily roles looked
the same," he said-which was a challenge, because they
were trying to draw out what a "typical" day looked like
for these educators.

School leaders can also make special efforts to keep special educators connected to other teachers in their school.
Lori Lacks and Heather Andersen, both special education
teachers at Foster Elementary School in Hingham, Mass.,
praised their principal for creating a planning schedule that
ensures they have prescheduled time to talk to their general
education peers about student needs.
Prior to that schedule change, the connection between
the teachers had been a little strained, Lacks said.
"The [regular classroom] teachers felt like they were not
being supported" by the special educators, Lacks said. "We
didn't have the time to connect with them." The new planning
schedule "allows us to have that time, and that has opened the
lines of communication."
Andersen said special educators sometimes can end up isolating themselves; for example, the special education teachers at her school used to eat lunch together. The principal
encouraged them to eat with the general education teachers
working with students on the same grade level.
The special educator's job, just like teaching in general,
will never be easy, said James LaBillois, a former school
psychologist who is now an assistant superintendent of
schools in the Hingham, Mass., school system, where
Lacks and Andersen teach. But tuned-in administrators
and principals can make some parts of the position less
burdensome, he said.
"I've always said that special ed. teachers are like my Navy
SEALS," or special-operations forces, he said. "There's
something unique that they do that nobody else can do. They
manage everything from after-school groups, to helping kids
getting off the bus, to getting work done. They need a lot of
support to be able to do that effectively." n
Research Analyst Linda Ouyang contributed to this report.

Getting and Keeping Good Teachers / www.edweek.org/go/GoodTeachers

| 17


http://www.edweek.org/go/GoodTeachers

Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of Education Week - January 24, 2018

Education Week - January 24, 2018
Teaching Shortages: Many Answers for a Complex Problem
Can Child-Care Perks Keep Teachers on the Job?
High school English teacher Ashley Amelianovich says goodbye to her son Miles, who is almost 2 years old, at the day-care center housed at her high school in Skokie, Ill. District leaders see the child-care center as a teacherretention tool
N.C. District Trains Its Own STEM Teachers
Latino Male Teachers: Building the Pipeline
Angel Magana works as a paid paraprofessional in a Denver elementary school as he studies to become a teacher.
Why Special Educators Really Leave the Classroom
Are Teacher Housing Perks A Good Idea?
From Teachers’ Villages To Tiny Homes
Staffing Schools in No-Stoplight Towns
Education Week - January 24, 2018 - Education Week - January 24, 2018
Education Week - January 24, 2018 - Cover2
Education Week - January 24, 2018 - 1
Education Week - January 24, 2018 - 2
Education Week - January 24, 2018 - 3
Education Week - January 24, 2018 - Teaching Shortages: Many Answers for a Complex Problem
Education Week - January 24, 2018 - 5
Education Week - January 24, 2018 - High school English teacher Ashley Amelianovich says goodbye to her son Miles, who is almost 2 years old, at the day-care center housed at her high school in Skokie, Ill. District leaders see the child-care center as a teacherretention tool
Education Week - January 24, 2018 - 7
Education Week - January 24, 2018 - 8
Education Week - January 24, 2018 - N.C. District Trains Its Own STEM Teachers
Education Week - January 24, 2018 - 10
Education Week - January 24, 2018 - 11
Education Week - January 24, 2018 - Angel Magana works as a paid paraprofessional in a Denver elementary school as he studies to become a teacher.
Education Week - January 24, 2018 - 13
Education Week - January 24, 2018 - 14
Education Week - January 24, 2018 - Why Special Educators Really Leave the Classroom
Education Week - January 24, 2018 - 16
Education Week - January 24, 2018 - 17
Education Week - January 24, 2018 - Are Teacher Housing Perks A Good Idea?
Education Week - January 24, 2018 - 19
Education Week - January 24, 2018 - From Teachers’ Villages To Tiny Homes
Education Week - January 24, 2018 - 21
Education Week - January 24, 2018 - Staffing Schools in No-Stoplight Towns
Education Week - January 24, 2018 - 23
Education Week - January 24, 2018 - 24
Education Week - January 24, 2018 - 25
Education Week - January 24, 2018 - 26
Education Week - January 24, 2018 - 27
Education Week - January 24, 2018 - 28
Education Week - January 24, 2018 - Cover3
Education Week - January 24, 2018 - Cover4
Education Week - January 24, 2018 - CW1
Education Week - January 24, 2018 - CW2
Education Week - January 24, 2018 - CW3
Education Week - January 24, 2018 - CW4
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_10162019
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http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_09262012
http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_09192012
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http://ew.edweek.org/nxtbooks/epe/ew_test
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http://www.nxtbookMEDIA.com