Education Week - January 17, 2018 - 7

How Classroom Location Matters in Teacher Collaboration
When a teacher has a problem, she
might go to a mentor or an instructional coach-but often, she goes to
whomever is closest at hand.
That's why a new series of studies
suggests that school administrators
can boost teacher collaboration and
build on formal teacher training by
paying more attention to how teachers are assigned to classrooms within
the building.
"Clearly, it can make a big difference," said co-author James Spillane of
Northwestern University, whose most
recent work was published last week
in the magazine Education Next. "If
you want to maximize the returns
from master teachers or mentor teachers, you would want to carefully place
them in a building to maximize the
overlap in their [work] zone and that
of new teachers ... so you increase the
likelihood they will interact."
Spillane and Matthew Shirrell of
George Washington University analyzed data from 14 traditionally laid
out, "egg crate"-style elementary
schools in an unnamed 6,000-student Midwestern suburban school
district. They surveyed principals,
instructional coaches, and teachers
about their work habits and which
colleagues they had reached out to for
instructional help in math.
"Teaching has this history of being
a very isolating occupation," said
Shirrell, an assistant professor of
educational leadership at George
Washington. "It has generally been designed and thought of as solitary and
confined work behind your classroom
door, and it's only kind of recently that
people have tried to get people to work
together in clear ways."

Mapping Teacher Travels
The researchers used digital mapping software to track teachers' typical paths during the day, including to
key destinations like the principal's
office, restrooms, the photocopier, and
the teachers' lounge. They calculated
how close staff were to each other in
the building and how much of their
"functional work zones"-their typical paths during the day-overlapped
with each other.
They found teachers who were near
to each other and tended to follow similar schedules were much more likely
to compare notes on math instruction,
even if they taught different grades or
weren't in a formal professional development group with one another. Take,
for example, a pair of teachers that
has about a 30 percent chance of collaborating with each other about their
math instruction, based on the grades
they teach and their relative teaching experience. If their classrooms are
78 feet farther away from each other
in the building-about three doors
away, rather than next door-their
likelihood of interacting drops to 19
percent. Those whose offices are 156
feet away or more, such as those along
a separate hall or another wing, end
up collaborating only 11 percent of the
time.
The researchers found teachers who
collaborated on math were not more
likely to have classrooms closer to

each other in the following year, but
teachers who were moved closer to
one another in one year were more
likely to collaborate the following year.
"There's a strong association between physical proximity in a building and who teachers talk to about
their work," said Spillane, a professor
of learning and organizational change
at Northwestern. "When you are close
to somebody and your functional
zone, your work zone overlaps with
theirs, you are more likely to have a
chance encounter."

'Power' of Chance Encounters
The importance of proximity and
communal spaces is not a new concept, of course. A 1977 study found
that engineers were exponentially
less likely to collaborate with others
whose desks were 75 feet away-
an almost identical distance to the
teacher study-and that a company's
speed in developing new ideas was
directly related to how often its employees engaged in casual discussions.
"They are brief-we're talking
about a couple minutes each-but
these supplement and build on the
more formal interactions schools
have" for professional development,
Spillane said. "We should never underestimate the power of the chance
encounters. It's the just-in-time training: 'I have a challenge and I'm going
to forget it by the time we have our
weekly meeting; can I just ask you a
question about this?' "
That's important, said Shirrell,
because prior research has shown
teachers are less likely to collaborate
with peers about math instruction
than reading and other subjects. A related study published last year in the
journal Sociology of Education found
these casual meetings enhanced
teachers' formal professional development in math. "Teachers interact a lot
less about math," Shirrell said. "It's interesting to think that this could lead
to different patterns in math than in
other subjects. ... Maybe proximity
matters more in math because teachers are talking about it less overall."
While the study did not link student
math achievement to their teachers'
collaboration, other studies suggest
that students benefit when their
teachers engage in ongoing instructional discussion with peers.
For example, in the 2017 study, one
1st-grade teacher recalled doing a
graphing exercise with her students
and then stepping out of her class to
discuss the lesson. Another teacher
who had been in her professional development group "happened to walk
by and she just kind of sat down and
joined us, and so then I just asked her
... what I could have done to ... deepen
the kids' understanding."
It's also not clear yet whether teachers collaborate differently in a more
open-plan building layout, or in a
school with more high-need students;
about 25 percent of the students in
the study district were low-income,
and more than 80 percent were white.
The researchers are now studying
how patterns of collaboration differ
for new and more experienced teachers, and for teachers in different types
of schools.

STEPS AWAY FROM HELP
Teachers are more likely to ask for help or to collaborate with teachers they meet casually
over the course of the day, finds a new study in Education Next. Researchers used geographic
tracking to look at teachers' location in the building and "functional zones"-where they went
on campus in a typical day. They found that teachers whose classrooms were close, or whose
work zones overlapped, were significantly more likely to work together.

Percent chance of an interaction

By Sarah D. Sparks

l Base likelihood
l One standard

deviation of overlap
l Two standard

deviations of overlap

50

47
38

40

30

30

30
20

19

10

78 ft.
farther

242 ft.
overlap

121 ft.
overlap

11
156 ft.
farther

0

Walking
ClassroomDistance
Proximity

Functional
Overlap
FunctionalZone
Zone Overlap

SOURCE: Education Next

Base likelyhood

OVERLAPPING
WORK ZONES

One standard of deviation of distance/overlap

Two standard of deviation of distance/overlap

A geographic information system
analysis of teachers' daily work
habits shows how two different
teachers might interact during
the course of the day on the way to
common areas like the restrooms
or the principal's office.

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Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of Education Week - January 17, 2018

Education Week - January 17, 2018
QUALITY COUNTS 2018: Grading the States
Cheating Scandal in Atlanta Casts Long Shadow
Unknown Fate for DACA Leaves Dreamers on Edge
Report Roundup
News in Brief
Ed. Dept. Finds Texas Suppressed Spec. Ed. Enrollment
How Classroom Location Matters In Teacher Collaboration
How Much Reform Is Too Much? Teachers Weigh In
Students Thrive When They See Purpose In Their Learning
K-12 Districts Advised on Rights in Post-‘Net Neutrality’ Era
What’s on the Runway for Trump, Congress on Education?
Year One: K-12 Presidential Scorecards
States Slow in Adopting ESSA’s Testing Flexibility
At Halfway Mark, Congress Faces Pile of Education Issues
K-12 Key Topic for State Legislators
Patrick J. Wolf: Four Sound Practices for Public Debate
DATA: Which 2018 RHSU Edu-Scholars have the greatest social-media influence?
Pedro A. Noguera: How to Decide When Your Voice Is Necessary
DATA: Where are the Edu-Scholars?
Robert Kelchen: Some Cautions for Junior Scholars (and Their Institutions)
DATA: Percentage of 2018 RHSU Edu-Scholars with Twitter accounts
Diana Hess: Scholars, Don’t Overstep Your Expertise
Letters
TopSchoolJobs Recruitment Marketplace
Frederick M. Hess: When Public Scholarship Gives Way to Bombast and Bluster
Education Week - January 17, 2018 - Unknown Fate for DACA Leaves Dreamers on Edge
Education Week - January 17, 2018 - 2
Education Week - January 17, 2018 - 3
Education Week - January 17, 2018 - News in Brief
Education Week - January 17, 2018 - 5
Education Week - January 17, 2018 - Ed. Dept. Finds Texas Suppressed Spec. Ed. Enrollment
Education Week - January 17, 2018 - How Classroom Location Matters In Teacher Collaboration
Education Week - January 17, 2018 - How Much Reform Is Too Much? Teachers Weigh In
Education Week - January 17, 2018 - Students Thrive When They See Purpose In Their Learning
Education Week - January 17, 2018 - K-12 Districts Advised on Rights in Post-‘Net Neutrality’ Era
Education Week - January 17, 2018 - 11
Education Week - January 17, 2018 - 12
Education Week - January 17, 2018 - 13
Education Week - January 17, 2018 - 14
Education Week - January 17, 2018 - 15
Education Week - January 17, 2018 - 16
Education Week - January 17, 2018 - 17
Education Week - January 17, 2018 - 18
Education Week - January 17, 2018 - 19
Education Week - January 17, 2018 - 20
Education Week - January 17, 2018 - 21
Education Week - January 17, 2018 - Year One: K-12 Presidential Scorecards
Education Week - January 17, 2018 - States Slow in Adopting ESSA’s Testing Flexibility
Education Week - January 17, 2018 - K-12 Key Topic for State Legislators
Education Week - January 17, 2018 - DATA: Which 2018 RHSU Edu-Scholars have the greatest social-media influence?
Education Week - January 17, 2018 - DATA: Percentage of 2018 RHSU Edu-Scholars with Twitter accounts
Education Week - January 17, 2018 - Diana Hess: Scholars, Don’t Overstep Your Expertise
Education Week - January 17, 2018 - Letters
Education Week - January 17, 2018 - TopSchoolJobs Recruitment Marketplace
Education Week - January 17, 2018 - 30
Education Week - January 17, 2018 - 31
Education Week - January 17, 2018 - Frederick M. Hess: When Public Scholarship Gives Way to Bombast and Bluster
Education Week - January 17, 2018 - CW1
Education Week - January 17, 2018 - CW2
Education Week - January 17, 2018 - CW3
Education Week - January 17, 2018 - CW4
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